Toxno Substance Profile
Evidence-based data. We have more than 25,000 profiles on Toxno.
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Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 147-85-3

  Substance Attributes

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Has known Side Effects

    This is often the result of long or short term medication use. The same medication can have a range of side effects ranging from none at all to totally debilitating symptoms within different individuals. Reasons for this include individual genetics, individual detoxification capacity, nutrition status, duration of use and total number of medications being taken.

    It becomes very difficult to establish clear causes of symptoms when multiple medications are being taken at once.

    See SIDE EFFECTS LINKOUT at end of this profile.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Medication or Drug | Household Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Animal Toxin | Food Flavoring | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States)
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organic Acids and Derivatives | Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives | Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues | Alpha Amino Acids
  • SYNONYMS: (-)-(S)-Proline | (-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylate | (-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid | (-)-Proline | (2S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid | (S)-(-)-Proline | (S)-(-)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate | (S)-(-)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid | (S)-2-Carboxypyrrolidine | (S)-2-Pyrralidinecarboxylate | (S)-2-Pyrralidinecarboxylic acid | (S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylate | (S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid | (S)-Proline | (S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid | (−)-(S)-proline | (−)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid | (−)-proline | 2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylate | 2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid | L-(-)-Proline | L-alpha-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid | L-Prolin | L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid | L-α-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid | P | Prolina | Proline | Prolinum
  • DESCRIPTION: L-Proline is one of the twenty amino acids used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. Proline is sometimes called an imino acid, although the IUPAC definition of an imine requires a carbon-nitrogen double bond. Proline is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | Flavornet | EAFUS | Drugbank
  • LAST UPDATE: 26/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Chronically high levels of proline are associated with at least 5 inborn errors of metabolism including: Hyperprolinemia Type I, Hyperprolinemia Type II, Iminoglycinuria, Prolinemia Type II and Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. | Hepatic
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Glycogenic, by L-Proline oxidase in the kidney, it is ring-opened and is oxidized to form L-Glutamic acid. L-Ornithine and L-Glutamic acid are converted to L-Proline via L-Glutamic acid-gamma-semialdehyde. It is contained abundantly in collagen, and is intimately involved in the function of arthrosis and chordae. |
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Endoplasmic reticulum", "Extracellular", "Lysosome", "Membrane", "Mitochondria"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons and also helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.

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  Exposure Routes

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