Toxno Substance Profile
Evidence-based data. We have more than 25,000 profiles on Toxno.
Use Search below to seek out more. Or browse the Exposure Routes; alternatively see our Lists that have more substances than notes in a Liszt virtuoso piano piece.
Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 66-25-1

  Substance Attributes

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Chemical Found in Air near CSG Operations | Uremic Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Odor and Flavour | This Chemical is an Odorant and has a smell like - grass, tallow, fat | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - FRAGRANCE ( Generally Not used on Food)
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organooxygen Compounds | Carbonyl Compounds | Aldehydes | Medium-Chain Aldehydes
  • SYNONYMS: Caproaldehyde | Caproic aldehyde | Capronaldehyde | Hexaldehyde | Hexanaldehyde | Hexylaldehyde | N-Caproaldehyde | N-Hexanal | N-Hexylaldehyde
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Hexanal is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Hexanal is an alkyl aldehyde found in human biofluids. Human milk samples collected from women contains hexanal. Among mediators of oxidative stress, highly reactive secondary aldehydic lipid peroxidation products can initiate the processes of spontaneous mutagenesis and carcinogenesis and can also act as a growth-regulating factors and signaling molecules. In specimens obtained from adult patients with brain astrocytomas, lower levels of n-hexanal are associated with poorer patient prognosis. Hexanal is a volatile compound that has been associated with the development of undesirable flavours. The content of hexanal, which is a major breakdown product of linoleic acid (LA, n - 6 PUFA) oxidation, has been used to follow the course of lipid oxidation and off-flavour development in foods, and have been proposed as one potential marker of milk quality. A cardboard-like off-flavour is frequently associated with dehydrated milk products. This effect is highly correlated with the headspace concentration of hexanal. (A7871, A7872).
  • COMMENTS: This Chemical is in the category of Carbonyls and is found in Air near CSG Operations
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | Article-Colborn-Air | Flavornet | EAFUS | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: As a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Chronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. | Uremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Uremic toxins such as hexanal are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (A7868). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (A7869). |
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Naturally produced by the body (endogenous).

 Search all of Toxno

Or browse our mind blowing but terrifying Lists.

  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.

  Stay Informed

Chemicals released in consumer products and the environment are constantly changing. Regulations change. Exposure Routes change. People speak up and nasties are removed while often others are introduced.

By signing up you will periodically receive updates of potentially life changing information. Both for yourself and your family.

We take security and privacy very seriously and you can unsubscribe at any time.

cats at toxno

"Yeh. We were surprised too"