Toxno Substance Profile
Evidence-based data. We have more than 25,000 profiles on Toxno.
Use Search below to seek out more. Or browse the Exposure Routes; alternatively see our Lists that have more substances than notes in a Liszt virtuoso piano piece.
Substance Name

1,4-Dioxane
Identification Number: CASRN | 123-91-1

  Substance Attributes


  • Known Human Carcinogen

    This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Soluble in Water

    This substance easily dissolves in water. As such it can be easily transported via waterways. Not really a nastiness attribute, but this feature helps rapidly spread other nastiness attributes this substance may have.

  • Volatile - Evaporates easily

    This substance easily enters the air we breath. Not really a nastiness attribute, but this feature helps rapidly spread other nastiness attributes this substance may have.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Synthetic Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Dioxanes | 1,4-Dioxanes | 1,4-Dioxanes
  • SYNONYMS: 1 | 4-Diethylene dioxide | 1,4 Dioxane | 1,4-DIethylene dioxide | 1,4-Diethylenedioxide | 1,4-Diethyleneoxide | 1,4-Dioxacyclohexane | 1,4-Dioxan | Di(ethylene oxide) | Diethylene dioxide | Diethylene ether | Diethylene oxide | Dioxan | Dioxan-1,4 | Dioxane | Dioxane-1,4 | Dioxyethylene ether | Glycol ethylene ether | P-dioxane | Para-dioxane | Tetrahydro-1,4-dioxin | Tetrahydro-p-dioxin | Tetrahydro-para-dioxin
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Corrosion inhibitor | 1,4-Dioxane (commonly referred to as simply ‘dioxane’) is used as a solvent in the manufacture of other chemicals and as a laboratory reagent. It is a trace contaminant of some chemicals used in cosmetics, detergents, and shampoos. (L1189)
  • COMMENTS:

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Highly flammable liquid and vapour. Suspected of causing cancer. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation. | Chronic Health Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C4H8O2
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | CPDB | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | NTP | OEHHA | Article-Colborn-2010 | FracFocus | EPA in USA | FDA Indirect Food Additives | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: 1,4-Dioxane causes eye and respiratory tract irritation. (L1880)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: 1,4-Dioxane for short period of time cause eye and nose irritation at low levels, and severe kidney and liver effects and possibly death at very high levels. For long-term exposure, studies in animals have shown that breathing vapors of 1,4-dioxane, swallowing liquid 1,4-dioxane or contaminated drinking water, or having skin contact with liquid 1,4-dioxane affects mainly the liver and kidneys. Studies in workers did not indicate whether 1,4-dioxane causes cancer, but animal studies suggest that it is a probable human carcinogen. (L1189) | Exposure to 1,4-dioxane may occur by inhalation, ingestion, and to a lesser extent by dermal contact. 1,4-Dioxane is quickly absorbed and metabolized to beta-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA) by mixed-function oxidase enzymes. HEAA can then be converted to 1,4-dioxane-2-one under acidic conditions. Both of these products are rapidly and extensively eliminated in the urine (>95%). Unchanged 1,4-dioxane can also be excreted in the urine and in exhaled air, but mainly after high-dose exposure. (L1189)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Though the mechanism of toxicity of 1,4-dioxane has not yet been elucidated, it is known that its carcinogenic effects are caused by a non-genotoxic mechanism that is most likely cytotoxic in nature. (L1189, L1881) |
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: 1,4-Dioxane is primarily used in solvent applications for the manufacturing sector; however, it is also found in fumigants and automotive coolant. 1,4-Dioxane is a byproduct of the ethoxylation process in cosmetics manufacturing, thus many products on the market today contain 1,4-dioxane in very small amounts. However, some cosmetics, detergents, and shampoos may contain 1,4-dioxane at levels higher than recommended by the FDA for other products. 1,4-Dioxane can also be found in tap water, so human exposure to 1,4-dioxane may also occur during activities such as showering, bathing, and laundering. (L1189, L1880)

 Search all of Toxno

Or browse our mind blowing but terrifying Lists.

  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


  Stay Informed

Chemicals released in consumer products and the environment are constantly changing. Regulations change. Exposure Routes change. People speak up and nasties are removed while often others are introduced.

By signing up you will periodically receive updates of potentially life changing information. Both for yourself and your family.

We take security and privacy very seriously and you can unsubscribe at any time.


cats at toxno

"Yeh. We were surprised too"