Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Diazepam
Identification Number: CASRN | 439-14-5

  Substance Attributes


  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Has known Side Effects

    This is often the result of long or short term medication use. The same medication can have a range of side effects ranging from none at all to totally debilitating symptoms within different individuals. Reasons for this include individual genetics, individual detoxification capacity, nutrition status, duration of use and total number of medications being taken.


    It becomes very difficult to establish clear causes of symptoms when multiple medications are being taken at once.


    See SIDE EFFECTS LINKOUT at end of this profile.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Medication or Drug | Food Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Medication Approved in Australian (on the PBS) | Medication Approved in USA | Psychiatric Drug - Tranquilizers
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Benzodiazepines | | Benzodiazepines
  • SYNONYMS: 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one | Diapam | Diastat | Diazemuls | Methyl diazepinone | Methyldiazepinone | Nervium | Relanium | Valium | Aenthansilive, AIupram, Alboral, Aliseum, Altensine, Alupram, Amiprol, Anksiyolin, Anlin, Ansedan, Ansiolin, Ansiolisina, Ansiomed, Ansiopas, Antenex, Anxicalm, Anxionil, Anxionit, Anxium, Anxol, Anzepam, Apaurin, Apollonset, Apozepam, Arzepam, Assival, Atarviton, Atensine, Atilen, Audium, Avazen, Avex, Azedipamin, Azedipamine, Azipam, Azepan, Baogin, Bensedin, Bentapam, Benzopin, Best, Betapam, Bialzepam, Bortalium, Britazepam, Calmaven, Calmigen, Calmociteno, Calmod, Calmovita, Calmpose, Calmtack, Canazepam, Centrazepam, Cercine, Ceregulart, Chuansuan, Compaz, Condition, Consilium, Convulmin, Corticosan, Cuadel, Curecalm, Cyclopam, Decacil Plus, Decyl, Denion, Depocalm, Deprestop, Desconet, Desloneg, Diacen, Diaceplex, Dialag, Dialar, Diam, Diano, Diapam, Diapanil, Diapax, Diapin, Diapine, Diapo, Diaquel, Diastat, Diatex, Diatran, Diaz, Diazelong, Diazem, Diazemuls, Diazep, Diazepam, Diazepan, Diazepin, Diazer, Diazetard, Diazex, Diazidem, Diazilax, Diazum, Diben, Dicepin, Dienpax, Dipam, Dipaz, Dipezona, Disopam, Distenol, Distensor, Di-Tran, Dizac, Dizam, Dizep-P, Domalium, Doval, D-Pam, Drenian, D-Tran, D-Val, Ducene, Duksen, Dupin, Duradiazepam, DZP, Elcion, Eridan, Enyoid, E-Pam, Epanalium, Eridan, Erital, Esculid, Ethipam, Euphorin, Eurosan, Evacalm, Fabotranil, Faustan, Flocepan, Frescalis, Freudal, Galendiazepam, Gewacalm, Gewakalm, Gihitan, Glutasedan, Gradual, Gubex, Hexalid, Horizon, Ifa Fonal, Ivaxzepam, Jinpanfan, Kiatrium, Klarium, Kratium, Lamcord, Lamra, Legaril, Lembrol, Lembrol, Levium, Liberetas, Lizan, Lizon, Lorinon, Lovium, Mandro, Mandrozep, Mandro-Zep, Medipam, Melode, Melpazil, Mentalium, Metamidol, Metil Gobanol, Meval, Micronoan, Morosan, Nellium, Neo Rilax, Neo-Calme, Neosorex, Nercon, Nerozen, Nervium (Turkey), Neurolytril, Neuropam, Neurosedin, Nivalen, Nixtensyn, Noam, Noan, Normabel, Notense, Novapax, Novazam, Novodipam, Novo-Dipam, Ortopsique, Pacerfin, Paceum, Pacipam, Paci-Quil, Pacitran, Pamlin, Pamizep, Paralium, Paranten, Parzam, Pax, Paxabel, Paxate, Paxel, Paxum, Pazepam, Pealkit, Placidox, Plidan, Plidex, Prantal, Pharmadine, Placidox, Plidan, Pomin, Prizem, Propam, Pro-Pam, Prozepam, Psicotran, Psicozepam, Psychopax, Q-Pam, Quetinil, Quiatril, Quietal, Quievita, Radizepam, Ranzepam, Relanium, Relansol, Relasan, Relaxedant, Relazepam, Relazepan, Reliezen, Relivan, Reliver, Remansil, Remedium, Renborin, Reposepan, Reval, Rimapam, Ripid, Rival, Ro-Azepam, Rolasedan, Rontipan, RPS Zepam, Ruhsitus, Rupediz, Saromet, Scanzepam, Scelecome, Scriptopam, Sedabenz, Sedaner, Sedapam, Sedaril, Sedipam, Sedium, Seduxen, Seelucamu, Serenack, Serenamin, Serenzin, Servizepam, Sibason, Sibazon, Sico Relax, Sicorelax, Simasedan, Sincronex, Sipam, Solis, Somit, Somasedan, Somatin, Sonacon, Stedon, Stesolid, Stesolin, Stresanyl, Stress-Pam, Sunzepan, Tablinen, Talema, TAV-12, Taximel, Tecepan, Telsomet, Tencalm, Tensium, Tensopam, Timazepam, T-Quil, Trandyn, Tranquase, Tranquil, Tranquilax, Tranquirit, Tranquit, Tranquo, Tranquo-Puren, Tranquo-Tablinen, Tranyl, Trazepam, Tropium, Umbrium, Unisedil, Usempax AP, Valax, Valaxona, Valcaps, Valclair, Valdimex, Valiapan, Valibrin, Valinex, Valinil, Valinter, Valiquid, Valisanbe, Valitran, Valium, Valiuzam, Valocordin, Valoi, Valomin, Valpam, Valrelease, Valuzepam, Valzepam, Vanconin, Vapam, Vatran, Vazen, Vazepam, Vicalma, Vidalen, Vival, Vivol, Wilpan, Winii, X-O'Spaz, Zepam, Zepaxid, Zetran, Zopam; component of Abulempax, Acordin, Adepressina, Adepsique, Anamol, Aneurol, Ansiovitam, Ansium, Arcure, Arnol 720-T, Aspam, Aspaserine, Betamed, Biogesic, Calmosedan, Calmpose, Campin, Centagesic, Centopam, Compensol, Complutine, Cuait D, Dasten-Plus, Depsodiaz, Depsonil, Diaceplex, Diapam, Diapyram, Diazeprin, Dicepin B6, Distedon, Dolanet D, Dolo Relaxedant, Doloxene, Domalium Compuesto, Dualid, Duodil, Equimood, Ergo Dolanet D, Ergo Relaxedant, Ergo Trisclin, Esbelcabs, Faradil, Faradil 200, Faradil Gas, Gamibetal plus, Gaseo 3, Gloriax, Glypoe, Gobanal, Harmomed, Hexalid, Hipofagin, Inibex, Iremisal, Irene Plus, Klevocalm, Lakpam, Lori, Metaneuron, Minorex, Moderex, Multisedil, Nadis, Neomesmar, Neo Nevrofillin, Neovale, Nifalium, Nifepam, Nitavan, Nitcalm, Nitosc, Nitravet, Nitrosun, Nofran, Noloten Complex, Numencial, Numencial Plus, Pacium, Pamalgin, Pasminox 40 Somatico, Penormin, Pertranquil, Piguin, Placidox, Plidex, Plidex T, Plidex T 100, Podium, Prazep, Psico-Retard, Psychodep, Qual, Redotex, Reladorm, Rocitens, Rocitens Forte, Rumin, Sedilit, Serenade, Sico-Relax, Silentan, Simalgin Compuesto, Spasen somatico, Spasmeridan, Spasmoctyl Somatico 40, Spasmomen somatico, Super Emagrin, Tancodep, Tepazepan, Tenil, Tenuatina, Tilpam, Tratobes, Tri-Aero-Om, Trital, Tropargal, Ulsedin, Valisal, Valpinax, Valtrax, Vincosedan, Xiconeural 3
  • DESCRIPTION: Diazepam is a benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589).
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are NOT tested for on Australian Foods even though the Pesticide is approved in Australia. This is partly so because this pesticide is not usually used around food agriculture. | Pesticide approved in Australia
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C16H13ClN2O
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | IARC | OEHHA | APVMA | Drugbank | Australian Approved Medications PBS | USA FDA APPROVED DRUG PRODUCTS | Peter Lehmann Psychiatric Drugs List
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of overdose include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored.
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: They cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive. May cause a potentially dangerous rash that may develop into Stevens Johnson syndrome, an extremely rare but potentially fatal skin disease. | Hepatic via the Cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The main active metabolite is desmethyldiazepam, in addition to minor active metabolites including temazepam and oxazepam. Route of Elimination: Diazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates. Half Life: Biphasic 1-2 days and 2-5 days, active metabolites with long half lives.
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell. | Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular", "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
  • SEE MEDICATION SIDE EFFECTS

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  Exposure Routes

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