Known Human Carcinogen
This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.
Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.
Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Toxic to Wildlife
May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | PESTICIDE active ingredient | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Halobenzenes | Dichlorobenzenes
- SYNONYMS: 1 | 4-Dichlorobenzene | 1,4-Chlorobenzene | 1,4-Dichloorbenzeen | 1,4-Dichlor-benzol | 1,4-Dichloro-Benzene | Di-chloricide | Dichlorobenzene | Dichlorocide | Evola | Globol | Kaydox | p-Chlorophenyl chloride | p-Dichlorbenzol | p-Dichloro-Benzene | p-Dichlorobenzene | p-Dichlorobenzol | p-Diclorobenzene | PARA | Para crystals | para-Dichlorobenzene | Paracide | Paradi | Paradichlorbenzol | Paradichlorobenzene | Paradichlorobenzol | Paradow | Paramoth | Paranuggets | Parazene | PDB | PDCB | Persia-Perazol | Santochlor
- DESCRIPTION: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (p-DCB, para-dichlorobenzene) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2. This colorless solid has a strong odor. In terms of its structure, the molecule consists of two chlorine atoms substituted for hydrogen at opposing sites on a benzene ring. p-DCB is used a pesticide and a deodorant, most familiarly in mothballs in which it is a replacement for the more traditional naphthalene. p-DCB is also used as a precursor in the production of the polymer poly(p-phenylene sulfide). Under California's Proposition 65, p-DCB is listed as known to the State to cause cancer. A probable mechanism for the carcinogenic effects of mothballs and some types of air fresheners containing p-DCB has been identified.
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Suspected of causing cancer. Causes serious eye irritation. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C6H4Cl2
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | CPDB | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | NTP | OEHHA | FDA Indirect Food Additives | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | DPR | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Burning sensation, cough, drowsiness, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and vomiting can follow inhalation or ingestion of 1,4-DCB. Moreover, its ingestion can cause diarrhoea. Eye exposure can lead to redness and pain of the contact surface. Vapors may cause irritation to skin, nose, throat, and eyes. Solid p-dichlorobenzene has very little effect on the skin. (L395, T63)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Prolonged exposure to high concentration of 1,4-DCB may cause weakness, dizziness, loss of weight, liver injury. Chronic (months to years) ingestion of 1,4-DCB products can provoque skin blotches and problems with red blood cells, such as anemia. There is an indication that 1,4-DCB can affect the development of the nervous system after birth. 1,4-DCB is possibly a human carcinogen. (L395, T63) | Absorption of 1,4-DCB is rapid and essentially complete following inhalation or oral exposure. It is distributed throughout the body, preferentially to the fat tissue and organ-specific sites within the body, following the order: adipose > kidney > liver > blood. 1,4-DCB is initially metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes, specifically P4502E1, to an active epoxide followed by hydrolysis to 2,5-dichlorophenol, which may be further oxidized to dichlorocatechols, or possibly a dichlorohydroquinone. More often, it might be conjugated to sulfate, or to form the glucuronide, or mercapturic acid; conjugation occurs extensively, with virtually no unconjugated metabolites reported in the available studies. Metabolism is believed to occur mainly in the liver, but may occur at lower levels in other tissues, such as the kidney or lung. 1,4-DCB is eliminated almost exclusively in the urine, primarily as conjugates of 2,5-dichlorophenol. (L395)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: The hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity observed in laboratory animals are likely due to the formation of toxic intermediates formed while converting 1,4-DCB to 2,5-dichlorophenol by cytochrome P-450, or by depletion of GSH at higher doses of 1,4-DCB, or both. (L395) | This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (T10)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
- Additional Exposure Routes: 1,4-DCB is used a pesticide and a deodorant, most famously in mothballs in which it is a replacement for the more traditional naphthalene. 1,4-DCB is also used as a precursor in the production of the polymer poly(p-phenylene sulfide). 1,4-DCB also is used to make deodorant blocks used in garbage cans and restrooms, and to help control odors in animal-holding facilities. 1,4-DCB has been used as an insecticide on fruit and as an agent to control mold and mildew growth on tobacco seeds, leather, and some fabrics. Recently, using 1,4-DCB to make resins has become very important. Exposure may result from breathing vapors from 1,4-DCB products, drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food (However, the levels of p-DCB in foods are generally low), and eye exposure. (L393, L395, L397)
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