Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 74-83-9

  Substance Attributes

  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Serious Acute Effects

    This is a serious nasty substance. Effects are Acute (seen immediately). Substances in this category may be FATAL or acutely toxic if inhaled, skin contact or swallowed. See further details.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Pesticide | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | insecticide | acaricide | nematicide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organohalogen Compounds | Organobromides | | Alkyl Bromides
  • SYNONYMS: Bercema | BMM | Brom-methan | Brom-O-gas | Brom-O-gas methyl bromide soil fumigant | Brom-O-gaz | Brom-O-sol | Brommethan | Bromo-Methane | Bromometano | Bromur di metile | Bromure de methyle | Bromuro di metile | Broommethaan | Celfume | CH3Br | Chlorodibromomethane | Curafume | Dawson 100 | Detia gas ex-m | Dow Fume MC2 | Dowfume | Dowfume mc-2 | Dowfume MC-2 Fumigant | Dowfume mc-2 soil fumigant | Dowfume MC-2R | Dowfume mc-33 | Drexel plant bed gas | EDCO | Embafume | Fumigant-1 | Fumigant-1 (Obs.) | Halon 1001 | Haltox | Iscobrome | Kayafume | M-b-c Fumigant | MB | MBC soil fumigant | Mbc-33 Soil Fumigant | MBX | Meb R | MEBR | Merth-O-gas | Metafume | Meth-O-gas | Methogas | Methyl bromide | Methyl bromide as a structural fumigant | Methyl bromide rodent fumigant (with chloropicrin) | Methyl bromide | 14C-labeled | Methyl bromide | BSI | ISO | JMAF | Methyl fume | Methylbromid | Methylbromide | Metylu bromek | Monobrommethan | Monobromomethane | Pestmaster | Pestmaster (obs.) | Pestmaster Soil Fumigant-1 | Profume | Profume (obs.) | R 40B1 | Rfdfif@ | Rotox | Superior Methyl Bromide-2 | Terabol | Terr-O-cide II | Terr-O-gas | Terr-O-gas 100 | Terr-O-gas 67 | Tri-brom | Zytox
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Bromomethane (or methyl bromide) is an organobromide compound that may be produced both synthetically and by naturally marine organisms and certain terrestrial plants. It was used extensively as a pesticide and as a fire extinguisher component until being phased out by most countries in the early 2000s, as it is considered an ozone-depleting substance. The primary use of methyl bromide is/was as a fumigant in soil to control fungi, nematodes, and weeds; in space fumigation of food commodities (e.g., grains); and in storage facilities (such as mills, warehouses, vaults, ships, and freight cars) to control insects and rodents. Its popularity as a fumigant is largely attributable to its high toxicity to many pests, the variety of settings in which it can be applied, its ability to penetrate the fumigated substances, and its rapid dissipation following application. Trace amounts of methyl bromide have been detected in drinking water. There are many reports of humans who have died following acute inhalation exposure to bromomethane. Most cases have involved accidental exposures associated with manufacturing or packaging operations, use of fire extinguishers containing bromomethane, or fumigation activities. Death is not immediate, but usually occurs within l-2 days of exposure. The cause of death is not certain, but is probably due to neurological and lung injury.
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Suspected of causing genetic defects. Toxic if inhaled. Toxic if swallowed. May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure . Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation. Causes skin irritation. Very toxic to aquatic life. Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard Acutely Toxic | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | IARC | OEHHA | EPA in USA | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Breathing modest amounts of bromomethane may lead to the development of a headache, nausea and weakness after several hours. Breathing high concentrations of bromomethane may cause pulmonary edema, impairing respiratory function. Acute exposure by inhalation of bromomethane frequently leads to neurological effects in humans. Symptoms of acute exposure in humans include headaches, dizziness, fainting, apathy, weakness, confusion, speech impairment, visual effects, numbness, twitching, and tremors; in severe cases paralysis and convulsions are possible. Bromomethane is irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Dermal exposure to bromomethane can cause itching, redness, and blisters in humans. Neurological effects, including lethargy, forelimb twitching, tremors, and paralysis, have also been observed after chronic exposure to bromomethane.
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Bromomethane is highly toxic. Studies in humans indicate that the lung may be severely injured by the acute (short-term) inhalation of bromomethane. Acute and chronic (long-term) inhalation of bromomethane can lead to neurological effects in humans. Neurological effects have also been reported in animals. Degenerative and proliferative lesions in the nasal cavity developed in rats chronically exposed to bromomethane by inhalation. Chronic inhalation exposure of male animals has resulted in effects on the testes at high concentrations. Studies in humans indicate that the lung may be most severely injured by the acute inhalation exposure of bromomethane. The kidney is also sensitive to bromomethane. Anuria and proteinuria are common signs of renal injury in acutely exposed humans. | Bromomethane undergoes initial metabolism primarily by nucleophilic displacement of the bromide ion. When the attacking species is water, the products are methanol and bromide ion. Bromomethane may also react with organic thiols (R-SH) to yield S-methyl derivatives. This has been shown to result in formation of S-methylcysteine derivatives in hemoglobin of mice exposed to bromomethane. Further metabolism of methanol or S-methyl derivatives then leads to the formation of carbon dioxide.
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Organobromide compounds such as bromomethane are strong alkylating agents. Consequently they can readily modify free thiols (cysteines) and methionine residues of the surfaces of proteins leading to the disruption of enzyme, transporter or membrane functions. The bromide ion (which is produced from bromomethane metabolism in the body) is known to affect the central nervous system, causing a condition called bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (L626, L627, T104). However, the exact mechanism of toxicity for methyl bromide is currently uncertain, although its alkylating property as well as the reactive intermediates formed through metabolic transformation remain attractive hypotheses. |
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: The primary use of methyl bromide is as a fumigant in soil to control fungi, nematodes, and weeds; in space fumigation of food commodities (e.g., grains); and in storage facilities (such as mills, warehouses, vaults, ships, and freight cars) to control insects and rodents. In most places, levels of methyl bromide in the air are usually < 0.025 parts per billion (ppb). Industrial areas have higher levels (ranging up to 1.2 ppb) because of releases from chemical factories. Workers who fumigate homes and fields may be exposed to high levels of methyl bromide if proper safety precautions are not followed.

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  Exposure Routes

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