Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Serious Acute Effects
This is a serious nasty substance. Effects are Acute (seen immediately). Substances in this category may be FATAL or acutely toxic if inhaled, skin contact or swallowed. See further details.
Toxic to Wildlife
May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | Insecticide, Rodenticide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds | Miscellaneous Mixed Metal/Non-metals | | Miscellaneous Mixed Metal/Non-Metals
- SYNONYMS: Aluminum phosphide | Aluminum phosphide (alp) | Caswell No. 031 | Celphide | Celphine | Celphos | Fumitoxin | Gastion | Phostoxin | Phostoxin-a | RCRA waste number P006 | Talunex
- DESCRIPTION: Aluminium phosphide is a phosphide of aluminum. It is a wide band gap semiconductor and is used as a rodenticide, insecticide and fumigant for stored cereal grains. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust and is always found combined with other elements such as oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. Metal phosphides are hydrolysed to phosphine upon contact with water or stomach acid. Phosphine is a colorless, flammable, explosive, and toxic gas. (L980, L739, L740, L770)
- COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously. Fatal if swallowed. Very toxic to aquatic life. | Environmental Hazard Acutely Toxic | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: AlP
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | EU Pesticides | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Inhalating aluminum dust causes coughing and abnormal chest X-rays. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. Early symptoms of acute phosphine intoxication include pain in the diaphragm, nausea, vomiting, excitement, and a phosphorus smell on the breath. Higher levels can cause weakness, bronchitis, pulmonary edema, shortness of breath, convulsions, and death. Some effects, such as pulmonary edema, convulsions, and liver injury, may appear or continue to be present days after an exposure. Ingestion of metal phosphides results in release of phosphine in your stomach which can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. (L980, L739, L740)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Aluminum targets the nervous system and causes decreased nervous system performance and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier. The accumulation of aluminum in the body may cause bone or brain diseases. High levels of aluminum have been linked to Alzheimer's disease. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. Inhalation of phosphine may cause severe pulmonary irritation leading to acute pulmonary oedema, cardiovascular dysfunction, CNS excitation, coma and death. Gastrointestinal disorders, renal damage and leukopenia may also occur. Chronic exposure to phosphine can result in anemia, bronchitis, gastrointestinal effects, and visual, speech and motor problems. (L980, L982, L739, L740) | Aluminum is poorly absorbed following either oral or inhalation exposure and is essentially not absorbed dermally. The bioavailability of aluminum is strongly influenced by the aluminum compound and the presence of dietary constituents which can complex with aluminum and enhance or inhibit its absorption. Aluminum binds to various ligands in the blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found in bone and lung tissues. In living organisms, aluminum is believed to exist in four different forms: as free ions, as low-molecular-weight complexes, as physically bound macromolecular complexes, and as covalently bound macromolecular complexes. Absorbed aluminum is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the bile, while unabsorbed aluminum is excreted in the faeces. Phosphine and metal phosphides may be absorbed following ingestion or inhalation, then distribute to the nervous system, liver, and kidney. In the body, metal phosphides are hydrolysed to phosphine, and phosphine is oxidized to hypophosphite and phosphite. Metabolites are excreted in the urine, while unchanged phosphine is exhaled. (L982, L739)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: The main target organs of aluminum are the central nervous system and bone. Aluminum binds with dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) and rickets. Aluminum's neurotoxicity is believed to involve several mechanisms. Changes in cytoskeletal protein functions as a results of altered phosphorylation, proteolysis, transport, and synthesis are believed to be one cause. Aluminum may induce neurobehavioral effects by affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier, cholinergic activity, signal transduction pathways, lipid peroxidation, and impair neuronal glutamate nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway, as well as interfere with metabolism of essential trace elements because of similar coordination chemistries and consequent competitive interactions. Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. Certain aluminum salts induce immune responses by activating inflammasomes. Phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, preventing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This non-competitive inhibition prevents cellular respiration and leads to multi-organ dysfunction. Phosphine can also react with hydrogen peroxide to form the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, which can cause lipid peroxidation. (A291, A292, L739, A235, A236) | Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. (A235)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Aluminium phosphide is a wide band gap semiconductor and is used as a rodenticide, insecticide and fumigant for stored cereal grains. (L770)
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