Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Dibutyl phthalate
Identification Number: CASRN | 84-74-2

  Substance Attributes


  • Reproductive Effects

    Interferes with fertility

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | insect repellents | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Benzoic Acids and Derivatives | o-Phthalic Acid and Derivatives
  • SYNONYMS: 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid | 1,2-dibutyl ester | 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid | dibutyl ester | Araldite 502 | Benzene-O-dicarboxylic acid di-N-butyl ester | Benzene-O-dicarboxylic acid | di-N-butyl ester | Benzenedicarboxylic acid | dibutyl ester | BUFA | Butyl phthalate | Butylphthalate | Celluflex DPB | DBP (ester) | Di N butyl phthalate | Di-N-butyl phthalate | Di-N-butyl phthalate (dbup) | Di-N-butylester kyseliny ftalove | Di-N-butylorthophthalate | di-N-butyphthalatel | Dibutyl 1 | 2-benzenedicarboxylate | Dibutyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate | Dibutyl ester of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid | Dibutyl O-phthalate | Dibutyl phthalated | Dibutyl phthalic acid | Dibutyl-1,2-benzenedicarboxylate | Dibutyl-O-phthalate | Dibutyl-Phthalate | Dibutyll phthalate | Dibutylphthalate | Dibutylphthatlate | Elaol | Ergoplast FDB | Ersoplast fda | Genoplast B | Hatcol DBP | Hexaplas m/b | Kodaflex DBP | Morflex 240 | N-Butyl phthalate | N-Butylphthalate | O-Benzenedicarboxylic acid | dibutyl ester | Ortho-dibutyl phthalate | Phthalic acid di-N-butyl ester | Phthalic acid dibutyl ester | Phthalic acid | dibutyl ester | Polycizer DBP | Rapidcelltrade markP | RC plasticizer DBP | Staflex DBP | Uniflex DBP | Unimoll DB | Uniplex 150 | Witcizer 300
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Dibutyl phthalate is found in cloves. DBP was added to the California Proposition 65 (1986) list of suspected teratogens in November 2006. It is a suspected endocrine disruptor. It was used in some nail polishes; all major producers began eliminating this chemical from nail polishes in the Fall of 2006. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer. It is also used as an additive to adhesives or printing inks. It is soluble in various organic solvents, e.g. in alcohol, ether and benzene. DBP is also used as an ectoparasiticide.
  • COMMENTS:

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    May damage the unborn child. Suspected of damaging fertility. Very toxic to aquatic life. | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C16H22O4
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | OEHHA | EPA in USA | FDA Indirect Food Additives | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Skin contact with di-n-butyl phthalate may cause mild irritation. (L133)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Adverse effects from di-n-butyl phthalate exposure have not yet been reported in humans. However, animals studies have shown that di-n-butyl phthalate can affect reproductive ability by decreasing sperm count and causing birth defects. (L133) | Di-n-butyl phthalate is absorbed via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. It is rapidly distributed and cleared from the body. Metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate proceeds mainly by nonspecific esterases in the gastrointestinal tract, which hydrolyze of one butyl ester bond to yield mono-n-butyl phthalate, the primary toxic metabolite. Mono-n-butyl phthalate is conjugated with glucuronic acid via glucuronosyltransferase and excreted in the urine. (L133)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: The most characteristic effect of di-n-butyl phthalate is testicular atrophy. Di-n-butyl phthalate exposure causes both the release of iron from hemoglobin and/or transferrin in the liver and spleen, and the subsequent depletion of iron in the blood and testes. The decreased amount of available iron results in a decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity in the Sertoli cells. This results in disturbances in the energy transfer system between Sertoli cells and germ cells, which is required for the differentiation of male germ cells and their progression through the seminiferous epithelium and release as mature spermatozoa. Di-n-butyl phthalate may also exhibit weak estrogenic activity. It has been shown to exhibit toxic effects in liver mitochondria by uncoupling energy-linked processes and inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase. (L133, A105) | Di-n-butyl phthalate has been shown to exhibit toxic effects in liver mitochondria by uncoupling energy-linked processes and inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase. (A105)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Di-n-butyl phthalate is used to make plastics more flexible and is also in carpet backings, paints, glue, insect repellents, hair spray, nail polish, and rocket fuel. (L133)

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  Exposure Routes

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