Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Copper(II) hydroxide
Identification Number: CASRN | 20427-59-2

  Substance Attributes


  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Natural Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | inorganic | fungicide | bactericide | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Food Use Permitted | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds | Transition Metal Salts | | Transition Metal Oxides
  • SYNONYMS: Copper dihydroxide | Copper monohydroxide | Copper oxide hydrated | Copper(2+) hydroxide | Copper(I) hydroxide | Criscobre | Cuidrox | Cupravit blau | Cupravit blue | Cupric hydroxide | Cuprous hydroxide | Hydrated copper oxide | Hydrated cupric oxide | Indium hydroxide oxide | Kocide SD | Kuprablau | Parasol | Schweitzer's reagent
  • DESCRIPTION: Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper. It is found naturally in several copper minerals, st notably azurite, malachite, antlerite, and brochantite. Copper(II) hydroxide is rarely found as an uncombined mineral because it slowly reacts with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to form a basic copper(II) carbonate. The mineral of the formula Cu(OH)2 is called spertiniite. Copper(II) hydroxide has been used as a fungicide, nematacide, and occasionally as a ceramic colorant. Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. Copper is an essential elements in plants and animals as it is required for the normal functioning of more than 30 enzymes. It occurs naturally throughout the environment in rocks, soil, water, and air. (L277, L278, L300)
  • COMMENTS:
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: CuH2O2
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | DPR | EU Pesticides | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Breathing high levels of copper can cause irritation of the nose and throat. Ingesting high levels of copper can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and respiratory difficulty. (L278, L279)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: People must absorb small amounts of copper every day because copper is essential for good health, however, high levels of copper can be harmful. Very-high doses of copper can cause damage to your liver and kidneys, and can even cause death. Copper may induce allergic responses in sensitive individuals. (L278, L279) | Copper is mainly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, but it can also be inhalated and absorbed dermally. It passes through the basolateral membrane, possibly via regulatory copper transporters, and is transported to the liver and kidney bound to serum albumin. The liver is the critical organ for copper homoeostasis. In the liver and other tissues, copper is stored bound to metallothionein, amino acids, and in association with copper-dependent enzymes, then partitioned for excretion through the bile or incorporation into intra- and extracellular proteins. The transport of copper to the peripheral tissues is accomplished through the plasma attached to serum albumin, ceruloplasmin or low-molecular-weight complexes. Copper may induce the production of metallothionein and ceruloplasmin. The membrane-bound copper transporting adenosine triphosphatase (Cu-ATPase) transports copper ions into and out of cells. Physiologically normal levels of copper in the body are held constant by alterations in the rate and amount of copper absorption, compartmental distribution, and excretion. (L277, L279)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Excess copper is sequestered within hepatocyte lysosomes, where it is complexed with metallothionein. Copper hepatotoxicity is believed to occur when the lysosomes become saturated and copper accumulates in the nucleus, causing nuclear damage. This damage is possibly a result of oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation. Copper inhibits the sulfhydryl group enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, and paraoxonases, which protect the cell from free oxygen radicals. It also influences gene expression and is a co-factor for oxidative enzymes such as cytochrome C oxidase and lysyl oxidase. In addition, the oxidative stress induced by copper is thought to activate acid sphingomyelinase, which lead to the production of ceramide, an apoptotic signal, as well as cause hemolytic anemia. Copper-induced emesis results from stimulation of the vagus nerve. (L277, T49, A174, L280) | Copper binds to alpha-synuclein, initiating protein aggregation and likely contributing to the development of the neurodegenerative disorders Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. (A173)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Copper(II) hydroxide is used as a fungicide, nematacide, and occasionally as a ceramic colorant. (L300)

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