Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Propachlor
Identification Number: CASRN | 1918-16-7

  Substance Attributes


  • Known Human Carcinogen

    This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Food Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | herbicide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Anilides | Anilides
  • SYNONYMS: 2-Chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-N-phenylacetamide | 2-Chloro-N-isopropyl-N-phenylacetamide | 2-Chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide | a-Chloro-n-isopropylacetanilide | Acilid | Albras propachlor | Albrass | alpha-chloro-N-Isopropylacetanilid | Alpha-chloro-n-isopropylacetanilide | Amber | Atlas orange | Bexton | Bexton 4L | Caswell No. 194 | Chloressigsaeure-N-isopropylanilid | Chloro-n-isopropylacetanilide | Croptex | Isopropyl-2-chloroacetanilide | Kartex a | N-Isopropyl-2-chloroacetanilide | N-isopropyl-a-chloroacetanilide | N-isopropyl-alpha-chloroacetanilide | N-Methylethyl-N-chloroacidobenzene | Nitacid | Niticid | Portman propachlor 50FL | Prolex | Prolexpropaclor | Propachlor and atrazine | Propachlore | Ramrod | Ramrod 65 | Ramrod flowable | Ramrod-atrazine | Satecid | Sentinel | Tripart granular | Tripart sentinel
  • DESCRIPTION: Propachlor is widely used as a selective herbicide worldwide in corn, soybean and other crop cultures. Elevated concentrations of these herbicides and their degradation products have been detected in surface and groundwater. Propachlor is a pre-emergence herbicide, effective against annual grasses and certain broad-leaved weeds. It is a compound of the family of chloroacetanilides. (A252, L904)
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Harmful if swallowed. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause an allergic skin reaction. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C11H14ClNO
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | OEHHA | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Irritation and/or severe burns of the skin, eye, esophagus or gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory tract, depending on the route of exposure. (T36)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Eye exposure may cause corneal damage. Erythematopapular contact eczema can follow exposure to propachlor. (L904, L905) | Propachlor can be absorbed in mammals through the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts as well as through the skin. It does not accumulate in the body, since it is rapidly metabolized through the mercapturic acid pathway (MAP). Cysteine conjugates are formed by glutathione conjugation and this conjugate has been proposed as an intermediate in the metabolic formation of mercapturic acid conjugation. It has been shown that a cysteine conjugate of propachlor is the source of sulfur in methylsulfonyl- containing metabolites, but that the carbon in the methylsulfonyl group does not come from the cysteine moiety. Propachlor is conjugated firstly with glutathione and the reaction is mediated by glutathione transferases. The glutathione conjugation provides a means for inactivation of reactive electrophiles. Glutathione conjugates have the required physico-chemical properties for biliary excretion and will generally be present, together with their catabolites cysteinyl-glycine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine-mercapturic acid, in relatively high concentrations in the bile. After excretion with the bile, they are metabolized in the intestine where the C-S lyase present cleaves the cysteine conjugate, allowing further metabolism of sulfur to a methylsulfonyl-containing moiety. Eleven urinary metabolites, six of which are 2-methylsulfonylacetanalides have been isolated. The major fecal metabolite is identified as the cysteine conjugate. (L904, L905, L906)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Propachlor poisoning causes an induction of microsomal hepatic UDPGT activity, which produces increased clearance of thyroid hormone, T4. Decreased levels of T4 would result in increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Increased levels of TSH would result in the hyperplastic and eventually tumorigenic response of the thyroid. Propachlor metabolites also bind to nAChRs in the nervous system and cause endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (T10, A570, T152) | Propachlor poisoning causes an induction of microsomal hepatic UDPGT activity, which produces increased clearance of thyroid hormone, T4. Decreased levels of T4 would result in increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Increased levels of TSH would result in the hyperplastic and eventually tumorigenic response of the thyroid. Propachlor metabolites also bind to nAChRs in the nervous system. (T10, A570).
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Propachlor is used on a variety of food plants, including onions, field corn, hybrid seed, silage corn, sweet corn, grain sorghum, green peas, soybeans, flax, pumpkin, and strawberries. (L904)

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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