Toxno Substance Profile
Evidence-based data. We have more than 25,000 profiles on Toxno.
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Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 2303-17-5

  Substance Attributes

  • Neurotoxic Properties

    Negative impact on brain and nervous system.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | herbicide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organonitrogen Compounds | Amines | Tertiary Amines | Thia Fatty Acids
  • SYNONYMS: 2,3,3-Trichloro-2-propene-1-thiol diisopropylcarbamate | 2,3,3-Trichloroallyl diisopropylthiocarbamate | 2,3,3-Trichloroallyl N,N-diisopropylthiocarbamate | 2-Propene-1-thiol | 2,3,3-trichloro- | diisopropylcarbamate | Avadex be | Avadex BW | Caswell No. 870A | Diisopropylthiocarbamic acid S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl) ester | DIIsopropyltrichloroallylthiocarbamate | Dipthal | N,N-Diisopropyl-2,3,3-trichlorallyl-thiolcarbamate | RCRA waste no. U389 | S-(2,3,3-Trichloro-2-propenyl) diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-(2,3,3-Trichloroallyl) diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-(2,3,3-Trichloroallyl) N,N-diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-(2,3,3-Trichloroallyl)diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-(2,3,3-trichloroprop-2-en-1-yl) diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-2,3,3-Trichloroallyl diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-2,3,3-Trichloroallyl N,N-diisopropylthiocarbamate | S-2,3,3-Trichloroallyl-N,N-diisopropylthiolcarbamate | Tri-allate | Triallic acid | Triamyl | Trichloroallyl dIIsopropylthiocarbamate
  • DESCRIPTION: Triallate belongs to the thiocarbamate chemical class. It is a pre-emergence selective herbicide used to control grass weeds in field and pulse crops. It is used selectively to control wild oats, black grass, and annual meadow grass in barley, wheat, peas, lentils, rye, maize, beets, brassicas, carrots, and onions. Thiocarbamates are mainly used in agriculture as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Additional uses are as biocides for industrial or other commercial applications, and in household products. Some are used for vector control in public health. Thiocarbamates are mostly liquids or solids with low melting points.
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Harmful if swallowed. May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure . May cause an allergic skin reaction. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | EU Pesticides | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: As with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (L795)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Triallate is mutagenic. Data concerning the effects of thiocarbamates on man are scarce. However, cases of irritation and sensitization have been observed among agricultural workers. Some thiocarbamates, e.g., molinate, have an effect on sperm morphology and, consequently, on reproduction. However, no teratogenic effects have been observed. The results of mutagenicity studies have shown that thiocarbamates containing dichloroallyl groups are highly mutagenic. Some thiocarbamates are acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. Acute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. | As a general rule, thiocarbamates can be absorbed via the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are eliminated quite rapidly, mainly via expired air and urine. Two major pathways exist for the metabolism of thiocarbamates in mammals. One is via sulfoxidation and conjugation with glutathione. The conjugation product is then cleaved to a cysteine derivative, which is metabolized to a mercapturic acid compound. The second route is oxidation of the sulfur to a sulfoxide, which is then oxidized to a sulfone, or hydroxylation to compounds that enter the carbon metabolic pool.
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: The metabolic products of triallate, diallate and sulfallate appear to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. In particular, the 2-chloro-allyl group is responsible for the mutagenicity of these herbicides. These metabolites likely bind to or disrupt DNA causes base-pair subsitutions. Diallate has been shown to be a carcinogen in mice. Some thiocarbamates (EPTC, Molinate, Pebulate, and Cycloate) share a common mechanism of toxicity, i.e. the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. | Like the organophosphates, their mode of action is inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes, affecting nerve impulse transmission. (L795)
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Thiocarbamates are widely used throughout the world and are produced in great quantities, mainly as herbicides and fungicides.

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  Exposure Routes

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