Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 68-19-9

  Substance Attributes

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Has known Side Effects

    This is often the result of long or short term medication use. The same medication can have a range of side effects ranging from none at all to totally debilitating symptoms within different individuals. Reasons for this include individual genetics, individual detoxification capacity, nutrition status, duration of use and total number of medications being taken.

    It becomes very difficult to establish clear causes of symptoms when multiple medications are being taken at once.

    See SIDE EFFECTS LINKOUT at end of this profile.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Medication or Drug | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only | Medication Approved in USA
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Tetrapyrroles and Derivatives | Corrinoids | Cobalamin derivatives
  • SYNONYMS: Anacobin | Bedodeka | Bedoz | Berubigen | Betalin | Betalin 12 Crystalline | Betaline-12 | Betolvex | Bevidox | Bevidox concentrate | Biocobalamine | Byladoce | Cabadon M | Cobadoce forte | Cobalin | Cobavite | Cobione | Cobolin-M | Copharvit 5000 | Covit | Crystamin | Crystamine | Crystimin | Crystwel | Cyano-B12 | Cyanobalamin concentrate | Cyanocob(III)alamin | Cyanocobalamine | Cyanocobalmin | Cyanoject | Cycobemin | Cycolamin | Cykobemin | Cykobeminet | Cyomin | Cyredin | Cytacon | Cytakon | Cytamen | Cytobion | Depinar | Dicopac | Dimethylbenzimidazoylcobamide | Distivit | Docemine | Docibin | Docivit | Dodecabee | Dodecavite | Dodex | Duodecibin | Embiol | Emociclina | Eritrone | Erycytol | Erythrotin | Euhaemon | Extrinsic factor | Factor II | Fermin | Fresmin | Hemomin | Hepagon | Hepavis | Hepcovite | Hylugel plus | Macrabin | Megabion | Megalovel | Milbedoce | Millevit | Nagravon | Nascobal | Neuroforte-R | Normocytin | Novidroxin | Pernaemon | Pernaevit | Pernipuron | Plecyamin | Poyamin | Primabalt | Rebramin | Redamina | Redisol | Rhodacryst | Rubesol | Rubramin | Rubramin PC | Rubripca | Rubrocitol | Sytobex | Vibalt | Vibisone | Virubra | Vita-rubra | Vitabee 12 | Vitamin B12 | Vitamin B12 complex | Vitamin B12 Preparation | Vitarubin | Vitral
  • DESCRIPTION: Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamin's structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C63H88CoN14O14P
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Anaphylactic reaction (skin rash, itching, wheezing)-after parenteral administration. Cobalt inhalation can cause asthma-like breathing problems. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis, which is characterized by irritation and rashes. Ingesting large amounts of cobalt may cause nausea and vomiting. (L2090)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Exposure to high amount of cobalt can cause heart, lung, kidney, and liver damage. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis. Cobalt may also have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. (L29, L30) | Cobalt is absorbed though the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Since it is a component of the vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), it is distributed to most tissues of the body. It is transported in the blood, often bound to albumin, with the highest levels being found in the liver and kidney. Cobalt is excreted mainly in the urine and faeces. (L29) Half Life: Approximately 6 days (400 days in the liver).
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Vitamin B12 is used in the body in two forms: Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells. | Cobalt inhibits heme synthesis by preventing synthesis of 5-aminolaevulinate via inhibition of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase. (L22)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular", "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Cyanocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12. (L497) It is used for treatment of pernicious anemia (due to lack of or inhibition of intrinsic factor) and for prevention and treatment of vitamin B 12 deficiency.

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  Exposure Routes

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