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Substance Name

Coumarin
Identification Number: CASRN | 91-64-5

  Substance Attributes


  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Chemical used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Household Toxin | Plant Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Odor | This Chemical is an Odorant and has a smell like - green, sweet | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - FRAGRANCE ( Generally Not used on Food)
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Phenylpropanoids and Polyketides | Coumarins and Derivatives | | Coumarins and Derivatives
  • SYNONYMS: 1 | 2-Benzopyrone | 2-Oxo-1,2-benzopyran | 2-Oxo-2H-1-Benzopyran | 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one | 2H-Benzo[b]pyran-2-one | 2H-Chromen-2-one | 5,6-Benzo-2-pyrone | Benzo-a-pyrone | Benzo-alpha-pyrone | cis-O-Coumarinic acid lactone | Coumarine | Coumarinic anhydride | Cumarin | Kumarin | O-Hydroxycinnamic acid lactone | O-Hydroxycinnamic lactone | O-Hydroxyzimtsaure-lacton | Rattex | Tonka bean camphor | {2H-Benzo[b]pyran-2-one}
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Coumarin is a chemical compound/poison found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. It has a sweet scent, readily recognised as the scent of newly-mown hay. It has clinical value as the precursor for several anticoagulants, notably warfarin. --Wikipedia. Coumarins, as a class, are comprised of numerous naturally occurring benzo-alpha-pyrone compounds with important and diverse physiological activities. The parent compound, coumarin, occurs naturally in many plants, natural spices, and foods such as tonka bean, cassia (bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon), cinnamon, melilot (sweet clover), green tea, peppermint, celery, bilberry, lavender, honey (derived both from sweet clover and lavender), and carrots, as well as in beer, tobacco, wine, and other foodstuffs. Coumarin concentrations in these plants, spices, and foods range from <1 mg/kg in celery, 7000 mg/kg in cinnamon, and up to 87,000 mg/kg in cassia. An estimate of human exposure to coumarin from the diet has been calculated to be 0.02 mg/kg/day. Coumarin is used as an additive in perfumes and fragranced consumer products at concentrations ranging from <0.5% to 6.4% in fine fragrances to <0.01% in detergents. An estimate for systemic exposure of humans from the use of fragranced cosmetic products is 0.04 mg/kg BW/day, assuming complete dermal penetration. The use of coumarin as a food additive was banned by the FDA in 1954 based on reports of hepatotoxicity in rats. Due to its potential hepatotoxic effects in humans, the European Commission restricted coumarin from naturals as a direct food additive to 2 mg/kg food/day, with exceptions granting higher levels for alcoholic beverages, caramel, chewing gum, and certain 'traditional foods'. In addition to human exposure to coumarin from dietary sources and consumer products, coumarin is also used clinically as an antineoplastic and for the treatment of lymphedema and venous insufficiency. Exposure ranges from 11 mg/day for consumption of natural food ingredients to 7 g/day following clinical administration. Although adverse effects in humans following coumarin exposure are rare, and only associated with clinical doses, recent evidence indicates coumarin causes liver tumors in rats and mice and Clara cell toxicity and lung tumors in mice. The multiple effects as well as the ongoing human exposure to coumarin have resulted in a significant research effort focused on understanding the mechanism of coumarin induced toxicity/carcinogenicity and its human relevance. These investigations have revealed significant species differences in coumarin metabolism and toxicity such that the mechanism of coumarin induced effects in rodents, and the relevance of these findings for the safety assessment of coumarin exposure in humans are now better understood. In October 2004, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, 2004) reviewed coumarin to establish a tolerable daily intake (TDI) in foods. EFSA issued an opinion indicating that coumarin is not genotoxic, and that a threshold approach to safety assessment was most appropriate. EFSA recommended a TDI of 0 to 0.1 mg/kg BW/day. Including dietary contributions, the total human exposure is estimated to be 0.06 mg/kg/day. As a pharmaceutical, coumarin has been used in diverse applications with a wide variety of dosing regimens. Unlike coumadin and other coumarin derivatives, coumarin has no anti-coagulant activity. However, at low doses (typically 7 to 10 mg/day), coumarin has been used as a 'venotonic' to promote vein health and small venule blood flow. Additionally, coumarin has been used clinically in the treatment of high-protein lymphedema of various etiologies. (A7913).
  • COMMENTS:
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C9H6O2
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | CPDB | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | EPA in USA | Flavornet | EAFUS | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS:
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES:
  • ACTION OF TOXIN:
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular", "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Coumarin is a chemical compound/poison found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. The parent compound, coumarin, occurs naturally in many plants, natural spices, and foods such as tonka bean, cassia (bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon), cinnamon, melilot (sweet clover), green tea, peppermint, celery, bilberry, lavender, honey (derived both from sweet clover and lavender), and carrots, as well as in beer, tobacco, wine, and other foodstuffs. Coumarin is used as an additive in perfumes and fragranced consumer products at concentrations ranging from <0.5% to 6.4% in fine fragrances to <0.01% in detergents. In addition to human exposure to coumarin from dietary sources and consumer products, coumarin is also used clinically as an antineoplastic and for the treatment of lymphedema and venous insufficiency. The multiple effects as well as the ongoing human exposure to coumarin have resulted in a significant research effort focused on understanding the mechanism of coumarin induced toxicity/carcinogenicity and its human relevance. As a pharmaceutical, coumarin has been used in diverse applications with a wide variety of dosing regimens. However, at low doses (typically 7 to 10 mg/day), coumarin has been used as a 'venotonic' to promote vein health and small venule blood flow. Additionally, coumarin has been used clinically in the treatment of high-protein lymphedema of various etiologies.

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  Exposure Routes

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