Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 115-32-2

  Substance Attributes

  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

  • Toxic to Bees

    Bees pollinate plants. No pollination no plants. No plants no food. We go hungry or starve.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | acaricide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Slightly Toxic and Dangerous to Bees. Currently used in USA as a pesticide | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Diphenylmethanes | Diphenylmethanes
  • SYNONYMS: 1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol | 1,1-Bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol | 1,1-Bis(p-Chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol | 1,1-bis-(chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol | 1,1-Bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol | 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol | 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethanol | 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol | 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol | 4,4'-Dichloro-.alpha.-(trichloromethyl)benzhydrol | 4,4'-Dichloro-a-(trichloromethyl)benzhydrol | 4,4'-Dichloro-alpha-(trichloromethyl)benzhydrol | 4-chloro-alpha-(4-Chlorophenyl)-alpha-(trichloromethyl)benzenemethanol | Acarin | Bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichl oroethanol | Bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol | Carbax | Carbox | Cekudifol | Decofol | Di-(p-chlorophenyl)trichloromethylcarbinol | Dichlorokelthane | Dicomite | DTMC | Fumite dicofol | Hifol | Hilfol | Keltane | Kelthane | Kelthane a | Kelthane dust base | Kelthanethanol | Kelthone | Mifol | Milbol | Mitigan | p,p'-di cofol | p,p'-dicofol | p,p'-kelthane | p,p-dicofol | Para,para'-kelthane | Tricofol
  • DESCRIPTION: Dicofol is an organochlorine pesticide that is chemically related to DDT. Specifically, it is used as a miticide against the red spider mite. Though difocol is not extremely toxic, its use is controverial because one of the intermediates used in its production is DDT. It also may accumulate in the environment and its use is restricted in many areas. (L631)
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if swallowed. Causes skin irritation. May cause an allergic skin reaction. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C14H9Cl5O
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: T3DB | PubChem | IARC | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Honeybee pesticide poisoning: a risk management tool for Australian farmers and beekeepers 2012 | Beekeeping -Department of Entomology - PROTECTING HONEY BEES FROM PESTICIDES, Christian H. Krupke et al.; | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Symptoms exposure include nausea, dizziness, weakness and vomiting. Dermal exposure may cause skin irritation or a rash, and eye contact may cause conjunctivitis. (T10, L631)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Dicofol poisoning affects the liver, kidneys and the central nervous system. Very severe cases may result in convulsions, coma, or death from respiratory failure. High doses may also cause reproductive damage. (L631) | Dicofol can be absorbed via oral, inhahation, and dermal routes. It is distributed primarily to the adipose tissue, as well as the adrenal glands, thyroid, and liver. Metabolism of dicofol produces the metabolites 4,4'-dichloro-benzophenone and 4,4'-dichlorodicofol. Dicofol and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the faeces. (L631, L632)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Like other organochloride pesticides, dicofol is believed to act by at least four mechanisms, possibly all functioning simultaneously. It may reduce potassium transport across the membrane. Dicofol also alters the porous channels through which sodium ions pass. These channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization. Dicofol inhibits neuronal adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), particularly Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase which play vital roles in neuronal repolarization. Dicofol also inhibits the ability of calmodulin, a calcium mediator in nerves, to transport calcium ions that are essential for the release of neurotransmitters. All these inhibited functions reduce the rate of depolarization and increase the sensitivity of neurons to small stimuli that would not elicit a response in a fully depolarized neuron. Difocol is also an endocrine disruptor and binds both the androgen and estrogen receptor. In addition, it may alter sex hormone metabolism by directly inhibiting cytochrome P-450 19A1. Difocol is able to competitively bind transthyretin, which lowers plasma thyroid hormone levels. (T10, A214, A228, A229) | This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (T10)
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Dicofol is used as a pesticide on agricultural crops and ornamental plants, as well as for agricultural and domestic buildings for mite control. (L631)

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  Exposure Routes

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