Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Azolidines | Imidazolidines | Hydantoins
- SYNONYMS: 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-imidazolidinedione | 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylhydantoin | 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione | 1,3-Di(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylhydantoin | 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethyl-hydantoin | Dantoin dmdmh 55 | Dantoin-DMDMH | Dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin | DMDM hydantoin | Dmdmh | Dmdmh 55 | Glycoserve-DMDMH | Glydant
- DESCRIPTION: 1,3-Dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMDM hydantoin) is an antimicrobial formaldehyde releaser preservative with the trade name Glydant. DMDM hydantoin is an organic compound belonging a class of compounds known as hydantoins. It is used in the cosmetics industry and found in products like shampoos, hair conditioners and skin care products. (L1896)
- FORMULA: C7H12N2O4
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | FDA Indirect Food Additives | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: DMDM hydantoin may cause contact dermatitis. (A2882)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: DMDM hydantoin releases formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen. (L962, L1896) | Formaldehyde may be absorbed following inhalation, oral, or dermal exposure. It is an essential metabolic intermediate in all cells and is produced during the normal metabolism of serine, glycine, methionine, and choline and also by the demethylation of N-, S-, and O-methyl compounds. Exogenous formaldehyde is metabolized to formate by the enzyme formaldehyde dehydrogenase at the initial site of contact. After oxidation of formaldehyde to formate, the carbon atom is further oxidized to carbon dioxide or incorporated into purines, thymidine, and amino acids via tetrahydrofolatedependent one-carbon biosynthetic pathways. Formaldehyde is not stored in the body and is excreted in the urine (primarily as formic acid), incorporated into other cellular molecules, or exhaled as carbon dioxide. (L962)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: DMDM hydantoin is a formaldehyde releaser. It is likely that formaldehyde toxicity occurs when intracellular levels saturate formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, allowing the unmetabolized intact molecule to exert its effects. Formaldehyde is known to form cross links between protein and DNA and undergo metabolic incorporation into macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins). (L962, L1896) | DMDM hydantoin is a formaldehyde releaser. Formaldehyde is known to form cross links between protein and DNA and undergo metabolic incorporation into macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins). (L962, L1896)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
- Additional Exposure Routes: 1,3-Dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMDM hydantoin) is an antimicrobial formaldehyde releaser preservative with the trade name Glydant. It is used in the cosmetics industry and found in products like shampoos, hair conditioners and skin care products. (L1896)
Search all of Toxno
Or browse our mind blowing but terrifying Lists