Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Carbon dioxide
Identification Number: CASRN | 124-38-9

  Substance Attributes

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Food Additives with E Numbers | Prepropellant | Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | PESTICIDE active ingredient | Insecticide, Rodenticide | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Food Use Permitted | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organooxygen Compounds | | | Oxocarbons
  • SYNONYMS: Carbon oxide | Carbon-12 dioxide | Carbonic acid anhydride | Carbonic acid gas | Carbonic anhydride
  • DESCRIPTION: E Number: E290 | Food Additives with E Numbers used in Australia, NZ, UK and the EU. Over 400 in total. | Substance has been approved in: Australia and NZ | EU and UK | | Prepropellant | Gas present in air, but produced synthetically for food. Adds the fizz to fizzy drinks (carbonation), but is also used as a coolant, freezant, propellant, preservative and packaging gas. | Carbonated drinks. | Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Energizer | Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals. Carbon dioxide is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend on living and decaying plants for food, either directly or indirectly. It is, therefore, a major component of the carbon cycle. Additionally, carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars which may either be consumed again in respiration or used as the raw material to produce polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, proteins and the wide variety of other organic compounds required for plant growth and development. When inhaled at concentrations much higher than usual atmospheric levels, it can produce a sour taste in the mouth and a stinging sensation in the nose and throat. These effects result from the gas dissolving in the mucous membranes and saliva, forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. Carbon dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. Traditionally, the carbonation in beer and sparkling wine comes about through natural fermentation, but some manufacturers carbonate these drinks artificially.
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are NOT tested for on Australian Foods even though the Pesticide is approved in Australia. This is partly so because this pesticide is not usually used around food agriculture. | Pesticide approved in Australia
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | FracFocus | EPA in USA | US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES | FSANZ and FSA | EAFUS | APVMA | DPR | EU Pesticides | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Flushed skin, full pulse, extrasystoles, muscle twitches, hand flaps, reduced neural activity, headache, and possibly a raised blood pressure. In severe poisoning, symptomatology progresses to disorientation, panic, hyperventilation, convulsions, unconsciousness, and eventually death (L1145).
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Carbon dioxide poisoning (Hypercapnia) can induce increased cardiac output, an elevation in arterial blood pressure, and a propensity toward arrhythmias (L1145). | Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in diverse forms: dissolved in the plasma, or linked to proteins independently of the PCO2. Carbone dioxide is transported by the hemoglobin back to the lungs, where it is exhaled (A320, L1147).
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Carbon dioxide causes widespread activation of the sympathetic nervous system and an increase in the plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin, and other vasoactive peptides . The response is mediated by various subcortical centers in the hypothalamus, brainstem reticular formation and medulla. These areas can be excited locally by carbon dioxide, but they also receive afferents from the carotid and aortic chemoreceptors that are sensitive to changes in carbon dioxide in the blood. The results of sympathetic nervous system activation are, in general, opposite to the local effects of carbon dioxide. The sympathetic effects consist of an increase in cardiac contractility and heart rate and vasoconstriction (A628). | Carbon dioxide binds to G-protein-responsive adenylyl cyclases (A321).
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Endoplasmic reticulum", "Extracellular", "Golgi apparatus", "Mitochondria", "Nucleus", "Peroxisome"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. It is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas. Life jackets often contain canisters of pressured carbon dioxide for quick inflation. Aluminum capsules are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for airguns, paintball markers, for inflating bicycle tires, and for making seltzer (L1144).

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  Exposure Routes

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