Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.
Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Has known Side Effects
This is often the result of long or short term medication use. The same medication can have a range of side effects ranging from none at all to totally debilitating symptoms within different individuals. Reasons for this include individual genetics, individual detoxification capacity, nutrition status, duration of use and total number of medications being taken.
It becomes very difficult to establish clear causes of symptoms when multiple medications are being taken at once.
See SIDE EFFECTS LINKOUT at end of this profile.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Medication or Drug | Household Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace | Medication Approved in USA
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Imidazopyrimidines | Purines and Purine Derivatives | Xanthines
- SYNONYMS: 1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine | 1,3,7-Trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione | 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione | 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine | 1-Methyl-Theobromine | 1-methyltheobromine | 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purin-2,6-dion | 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione | 7-Methyl Theophylline | 7-methyltheophylline | Anhydrous caffeine | Anhydrous caffeine (JP15) | Cafcit | Cafeína | Caféine | Caffedrine | Coffein | Dexitac | Durvitan | Enerjets | Guaranine | Hycomine | Koffein | Lanorinal | Mateína | Methyltheobromide | Methyltheobromine | Methylxanthine theophylline | Monohydrate Caffeine | No-Doz | Pep-Back | Quick Pep | Teina | Thein | Theine | Vivarin | Wake-Up
- DESCRIPTION: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant drug in the world that mostly is consumed in the form of coffee. Whether caffeine and/or coffee consumption contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the single leading cause of death in the US, is unclear. The literature indicates a strong relationship between boiled, unfiltered coffee consumption and elevated cholesterol levels; however, there is a critical gap in the literature regarding the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on fibrinogen or CRP, which is an independent predictor of CVD risk. Available studies are limited by small samples sizes, inclusion of only men (or few women) and unrepresented age or ethnic groups. There is a critical need for controlled laboratory and epidemiological studies that include fibrinogen and CRP markers of CVD risk before conclusions can be drawn regarding the health effects of caffeine and/or coffee in a normal, healthy population of men and women. (A11723). The relationship between caffeine consumption and various illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and cancer remains equivocal. Prudence might dictate that pregnant women and chronically ill individuals exercise restraint in their use of caffeine, although research suggests relatively low or nonexistent levels of risk associated with moderate caffeine consumption. (A7827). There is extensive evidence that caffeine at dietary doses increases blood pressure (BP). However, concern that the drug may contribute to cardiovascular disease appears to have been dampened by (1) the belief that habitual use leads to the development of tolerance, and (2) confusion regarding relevant epidemiologic findings. When considered comprehensively, findings from experimental and epidemiologic studies converge to show that BP remains reactive to the pressor effects of caffeine in the diet. Overall, the impact of dietary caffeine on population BP levels is likely to be modest, probably in the region of 4/2 mm Hg. At these levels, however, population studies of BP indicate that caffeine use could account for premature deaths in the region of 14% for coronary heart disease and 20% for stroke. (A7828). Caffeine is a purine alkaloid that occurs naturally in coffee beans. At intake levels associated with coffee consumption, caffeine appears to exert most of its biological effects through the antagonism of the A1 and A2A subtypes of the adenosine receptor. Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator with mostly inhibitory effects, and adenosine antagonism by caffeine results in effects that are generally stimulatory. Some physiological effects associated with caffeine administration include central nervous system stimulation, acute elevation of blood pressure, increased metabolic rate, and diuresis. Caffeine concentrations in coffee beverages can be quite variable. A standard cup of coffee is often assumed to provide 100 mg of caffeine, but a recent analysis of 14 different specialty coffees purchased at coffee shops in the US found that the amount of caffeine in 8 oz (=240 ml) of brewed coffee ranged from 72 to 130 mg.Caffeine in espresso coffees ranged from 58 to 76 mg in a single shot. (A7829). Caffeine is a member of the methylxanthine family of drugs, and is the most widely consumed behaviourally active substance in the western world. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that caffeine modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. For instance studies indicate that caffeine and its major metabolite paraxanthine suppress neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis, and also suppress production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha from human blood. Caffeine has also been reported to suppress human lymphocyte function as indicated by reduced T-cell proliferation and impaired production of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2 and interferon [IFN]-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) and Th3 (IL-10) cytokines. Studies also indicate that caffeine suppresses antibody production. The evidence suggests that at least some of the immunomodulatory actions of caffeine are mediated via inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-phosphodiesterase (PDE), and consequential increase in intracellular cAMP concentrations. Overall, these studies indicate that caffeine, like other members of the methylxanthine family, is largely anti-inflammatory in nature, and based on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, many of its immunomodulatory effects occur at concentrations that are relevant to normal human consumption. (A7830).
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Harmful if swallowed | General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C8H10N4O2
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | EAFUS | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) | Drugbank | USA FDA APPROVED DRUG PRODUCTS
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: High doses may cause nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, headaches, nervousness or agitation, and the shakes.
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Caffeine may increase rates of miscarriage and low birth weight. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms include fatigue, headache, nausea and irritability. Using large amounts of these drugs can result in a condition known as amphetamine psychosis -- which can result in auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations, intense paranoia, irrational thoughts and beliefs, delusions, and mental confusion. | Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) is involved in caffeine biotransformation. About 80% of a dose of caffeine is metabolized to paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), 10% to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and 4% to theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine). Route of Elimination: In young infants, the elimination of caffeine is much slower than that in adults due to immature hepatic and/or renal function. Half Life: 3 to 7 hours in adults, 65 to 130 hours in neonates
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Caffeine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine act as antagonists at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake. | Caffeine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine act as agonists at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake.
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. For management of fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, and for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants. SEE MEDICATION SIDE EFFECTS
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