Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Cadmium hydroxide
Identification Number: CASRN | 21041-95-2

  Substance Attributes


  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Synthetic Toxin
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds | Transition Metal Oxoanionic Compounds | Transition Metal Hydroxides | Transition Metal Hydroxides
  • SYNONYMS: Cadmium dihydroxide | Cadmium(2+) dihydroxide | Cadmium(2+) hydroxide | Cadmium(II) dihydroxide | Cadmium(II) hydroxide | Cd(OH)2 | CdOH2
  • DESCRIPTION: Cadmium hydroxide is a hydroxide of cadmium with the formula Cd(OH)2. It is used in storage battery anodes, in nickel-cadmium and silver-cadmium storage batteries, in cadmium plating, and to prepare other cadmium salts. Cadmium is a transition metal and chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. It is found naturally in the earth's crust, though rarely on it's own. (L6, L468)
  • COMMENTS:
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: CdH2O2
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Acute inhalation of cadmium fumes results in metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Ingestion of cadmium causes vomiting and diarrhea. (L6)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Chronic exposure to cadmium fumes can cause chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and lung diseases such as bronchitis and emphysema. Cadmium also accumulates in the kidneys, causing permanent damage. Loss of bone density also occurs. (L6) | Cadmium is absorbed from oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Cadmium initially binds to metallothionein and albumin and is transported mainly to the kidney and liver. Toxic effects are observed once the concentration of cadmium exceeds that of available metallothionein, and it has also been shown that the cadmium-metallothionein complex may be damaging. Cadmium is not known to undergo any direct metabolic conversion and is excreted unchanged, mainly in the urine. (L6)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Cadmium initially binds to metallothionein and is transported to the kidney. Toxic effects are observed once the concentration of cadmium exceeds that of available metallothionein, and it has also been shown that the cadmium-metallothionein complex may be damaging. Accumulation of cadmium in the kidney results in increased excretion of vital low and high weight molecular proteins. Cadmium is a high affinity zinc analog and can interfere in its biological processes. It also binds to and activates the estrogen receptor, likely stimulating the growth of certain types of cancer cells and causing other estrogenic effects, such as reproductive dysfunction. Cadmium causes cell apoptosis by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases. (L8, A18, A19, A28) | Cadmium causes cell apoptosis by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases. (A28)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cell surface", "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular", "Microtubule", "Plasma Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Cadmium hydroxide is used in storage battery anodes, in nickel-cadmium and silver-cadmium storage batteries, in cadmium plating, and to prepare other cadmium salts. (L468)

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  Exposure Routes

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