Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Serious Acute Effects
This is a serious nasty substance. Effects are Acute (seen immediately). Substances in this category may be FATAL or acutely toxic if inhaled, skin contact or swallowed. See further details.
Toxic to Wildlife
May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.
Toxic to Bees
Bees pollinate plants. No pollination no plants. No plants no food. We go hungry or starve.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | insecticide | acaricide | ixodicide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU | Highly Toxic and Dangerous to bees. Currently used in USA | Australia as a pesticide | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Lipids and Lipid-Like Molecules | Fatty Acyls | Fatty Acid Esters | Pyrethroids
- SYNONYMS: Asana | Asana XL | Esfenvaleric acid | Fenvalerate (s,s)-isomer | Fenvalerate a | Fenvalerate a a | Halmark | S 5602 A a | Sumi-a | Sumi-alfa | Sumicidin a a
- DESCRIPTION: Esfenvalerate is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which is used on a wide range of pests such as moths, flies, beetles, and other insects. It is used on vegetable crops, tree fruit, and nut crops. It may be mixed with a wide variety of other types of pesticides such as carbamate compounds or organophosphates. Esfenvalerate has replaced the naturally occurring compound fenvalerate (to which it is almost identical) for use in the U.S. Much of the data for fenvalerate is applicable to the pesticide esfenvalerate because the two compounds contain the same components. The only differences in the two products are the relative proportions of the four separate constituents (isomers). Esfenvalerate has become the preferred compound because it requires lower applications rates than fenvalerate, is less chronically toxic, and is a more powerful insecticide. The compound contains a much higher percentage of the one insecticidally active isomer (84% for esfenvalerate and 22% for fenvalerate). A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical compound similar to the natural chemical pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum). Pyrethroids are common in commercial products such as household insecticides and insect repellents. In the concentrations used in such products, they are generally harmless to human beings but can harm sensitive individuals. They are usually broken apart by sunlight and the atmosphere in one or two days, and do not significantly affect groundwater quality except for being toxic to fish. (L811, L871, L876)
- COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia Dangerous to bees. DO NOT spray any plants in flower where bees are foraging.
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Toxic if inhaled. Toxic if swallowed. May cause an allergic skin reaction. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Environmental Hazard Acutely Toxic | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C25H22ClNO3
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | EU Pesticides | Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Honeybee pesticide poisoning: a risk management tool for Australian farmers and beekeepers 2012 | Beekeeping -Department of Entomology - PROTECTING HONEY BEES FROM PESTICIDES, Christian H. Krupke et al.; www.extension.purdue.edu | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Following dermal exposure to esfenvalerate, feelings of numbness, itching, burning, stinging, tingling, or warmth may occur, that could last for a few hours. Dizziness, headache, nausea, muscle twitching, reduced energy, and changes in awareness can result from inhalation or ingestion of large amounts of esfenvalerate. Paralysis can occur after exposure. (L857)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: At high doses, signs of poisoning attributable to esfenvalerate include profuse salivation and pulmonary edema, clonic seizures, opisthotonos (i.e., the spine is bent forward such that a supine body rests on its head and heels), coma, and death. At lower doses, commonly observed effects include paresthesia and erythema. (L863) | Esfenvalerate is readily absorbed by the oral route, but less so dermally; absorbed deltamethrin is readily metabolized and excreted. The main urinary metabolites from the acid moiety are CPIA glucuronide, 3-hydroxy-CPIA (free and lactone), 2,3-hydroxy-CPIA glucuronide and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-cis-2-butenedioic acid anhydride. The main urinary metabolite from the alcohol moiety is 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid sulfate (16-24% of the administered radioactivity). Other metabolites included 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (free and glycine and glucuronide conjugates), 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid (free and glucuronide) and 3-(2'-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid (free and sulfate). (A564)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Both type I and type II pyrethroids exert their effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. They appear to bind to the membrane lipid phase in the immediate vicinity of the sodium channel, thus modifying the channel kinetics. This blocks the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and thus prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state. The repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential produces effects quite similar to those produced by DDT, leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Other mechanisms of action of pyrethroids include antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, modulation of nicotinic cholinergic transmission, enhancement of noradrenaline release, and actions on calcium ions. They also inhibit calium channels and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase. (T10, T18, L857) | This pyrethroid exerts its profound effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. This pyrethroid is a axonic poison that block the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and, thus, prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Type I Pyrethroid esters (lacking the alpha-cyano substituents) affect sodium channels in nerve membranes, causing repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential, the effects being quite similar to those produced by DDT (L857, A560).
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Pyrethroids are used as insecticides. (L857)
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