Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Atrazine
Identification Number: CASRN | 1912-24-9

  Substance Attributes


  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | herbicide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Triazines | | N-Aliphatic S-Triazines
  • SYNONYMS: 1-Chloro-3-(ethylamino)-5-(isopropylamino)-2,4,6-triazine | 1-Chloro-3-(ethylamino)-5-(isopropylamino)-S-triazine | 2-Aethylamino-4-chlor-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazin | 2-Chloro-4-(2-propylamino)-6-(ethylamino)-S-triazine | 2-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-1,3,5-triazine | 2-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-S-Triazine | 2-Chloro-4-ethylamineisopropylamine-S-triazine | 2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine | 2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-Triazine | 2-CHLORO-4-ISOPROPYLAMINO-6-ETHYLAMINO -1,3,5-TRIAZINE | 2-CHLORO-4-ISOPROPYLAMINO-6-ETHYLAMINO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE | 2-Ethylamino-4-isopropylamino-6-chloro-S-triazine | 6-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-2-(isopropylamino)-S-triazine | 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine | 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(propan-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine | 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine | Aatram | Aatrex | Aatrex 4L | Aatrex 4LC | Aatrex 80W | Aatrex nine-O | Actinite PK | Akticon | Aktikon | Aktikon PK | Aktinit A | Aktinit PK | Argezin | Atazinax | Atraflow | Atraflow plus | Atranex | Atrasine | Atrataf | Atratol | Atratol A | Atrazin | Atrazine 4L | Atrazine 80W | Atred | Atrex | Attrex | ATZ | Azinotox 500 | Candex | Cekuzina-T | Chromozin | Crisamina | Crisatrina | Crisazine | Cyazin | Farmco atrazine | Farmozine | Fenamin | Fenamine | Fenatrol | Fogard | Gesaprim | Gesaprim 50 | Gesoprim | Griffex | Griffex 4L | Herbatoxol | Hungazin | Hungazin PK | Inakor | Laddock | Maizina | Mebazine | Oleogesaprim | Pitezin | Primatol | Primatol A | Primaze | Primoleo | Radazin | Radazin T | Radizin | Radizine | Strazine | Triazine A 1294 | Vectal | Vectal SC | Weedex A | Wonuk | Zeaphos | Zeapos | Zeazin | Zeazine | Zeopos
  • DESCRIPTION: Atrazine is an organic compound consisting of an s-triazine-ring is a widely used herbicide. Its use is controversial due to widespread contamination in drinking water and its associations with birth defects and menstrual problems when consumed by humans at concentrations below government standards. Although it has been banned in the European Union, it is still one of the most widely used herbicides in the world . Atrazine is a suspected teratogen, causing demasculinization in male northern leopard frog even at low concentrations, and an estrogen disruptor. A 2010 study found that atrazine rendered 75 percent of male frogs sterile and turned one in 10 into females. A 2002 study found that exposure to atrazine caused male tadpoles to turn into hermaphrodites - frogs with both male and female sexual characteristics. But another study, requested by EPA and funded by Syngenta, was unable to reproduce these results. Atrazine was banned in the European Union (EU) in 2004 because of its persistent groundwater contamination. In the United States, however, atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides, with 76 million pounds of it applied each year, in spite of the restriction that used to be imposed. Its endocrine disruptor effects, possible carcinogenic effect, and epidemiological connection to low sperm levels in men has led several researchers to call for banning it in the US.Rates of biodegradation are affected by atrazine's low solubility, thus surfactants may increase the degradation rate. Though the two alkyl moieties readily support growth of certain microorganisms, the atrazine ring is a poor energy source due to the oxidized state of ring carbon. In fact, the most common pathway for atrazine degradation involves the intermediate, cyanuric acid, in which carbon is fully oxidized, thus the ring is primarily a nitrogen source for aerobic microorganisms. Atrazine may be catabolized as a carbon and nitrogen source in reducing environments, and some aerobic atrazine degraders have been shown to use the compound for growth under anoxia in the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor, a process referred to as a denitrification. When atrazine is used as a nitrogen source for bacterial growth, degradation may be regulated by the presence of alternative sources of nitrogen. In pure cultures of atrazine-degrading bacteria, as well as active soil communitites, atrazine ring nitrogen, but not carbon are assimilated into microbial biomass. Low concentrations of glucose can decrease the bioavailability, whereas higher concentrations promote the catabolism of atrazine. Tyrone Hayes, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, notes that all of the studies that failed to conclude that atrazine caused hermaphroditism were plagued by poor experimental controls and were funded by Syngenta, one of the companies that produce the chemical. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its independent Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) examined all available studies on this topic including Hayes' work and concluded that there are 'currently insufficient data' to determine if atrazine affects amphibian development. Hayes, formerly part of the SAP panel, resigned in 2000 to continue studies independently. The EPA and its SAP made recommendations concerning proper study design needed for further investigation into this issue. As required by the EPA, Syngenta conducted two experiments under Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) and inspection by the EPA and German regulatory authorities. The paper concluded 'These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 microg/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation.' Another independent study in 2008 determined that 'the failure of recent studies to find that atrazine feminizes X. laevis calls into question the herbicide's role in that decline.' A report written in Environmental Science and Technology (May 15, 2008) cites the independent work of researchers in Japan, who were unable to replicate Hayes' work. 'The scientists found no hermaphrodite frogs; no increase in aromatase as measured by aromatase mRNA induction; and no increase in vitellogenin, another marker of feminization.'
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure . May cause an allergic skin reaction. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C8H14ClN5
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | CPDB | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS:
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES:
  • ACTION OF TOXIN:
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: This is a man-made compound that is used as a pesticide.

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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