Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Aluminium hydroxide
Identification Number: CASRN | 21645-51-2

  Substance Attributes


  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Drug | Household Toxin | Food Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Food Use Permitted
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds | Post-transition Metal Organides | Post-transition Metal Oxides | Post-transition Metal Oxides
  • SYNONYMS: Alterna gel | Alternagel | Alugelibye | Alumigel | Alumina trihydrate | aluminium(3+) hydroxide | Aluminium(III) hydroxide | Aluminiumhydroxid | Aluminum hydroxide | Aluminum hydroxide gel | Aluminum hydroxide | dried | Aluminum oxide hydrated | Aluminum oxide trihydrate | Aluminum trihydroxide | Aluminum(III) hydroxide | Alusal | Amberol ST 140F | Amorphous alumina | Amphogel | Amphojel | Antipollon HT | Apyral | Boehmite | British aluminum AF 260 | Calcitrel | Calmogastrin | Camalox | Di-gel liquid | Di-mu-hydroxytetrahydroxydialuminum | Dialume | Gelusil | Higilite | Hydroxyde d' aluminium | Kudrox | Liquigel | Maalox | Maalox HRF | Maalox plus | Mylanta | Tricreamalate | Trihydrated alumina | Trihydroxidoaluminium | Trihydroxyaluminum | Trisogel | Wingel
  • DESCRIPTION: Aluminium hydroxide is the most stable form of aluminium. It is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three, much more rare, polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite and nordstrandite. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and included as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust and is always found combined with other elements such as oxygen, silicon, and fluorine. (L739, L740, L756)
  • COMMENTS:
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: AlH6O3
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | EAFUS | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Inhalating aluminum dust causes coughing and abnormal chest X-rays. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (L739, L740)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Aluminum targets the nervous system and causes decreased nervous system performance and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier. The accumulation of aluminum in the body may cause bone or brain diseases. High levels of aluminum have been linked to Alzheimer's disease. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (L739, L740) | Aluminum is poorly absorbed following either oral or inhalation exposure and is essentially not absorbed dermally. The bioavailability of aluminum is strongly influenced by the aluminum compound and the presence of dietary constituents which can complex with aluminum and enhance or inhibit its absorption. Aluminum binds to various ligands in the blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found in bone and lung tissues. In living organisms, aluminum is believed to exist in four different forms: as free ions, as low-molecular-weight complexes, as physically bound macromolecular complexes, and as covalently bound macromolecular complexes. Absorbed aluminum is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the bile, while unabsorbed aluminum is excreted in the faeces. (L739)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: The main target organs of aluminum are the central nervous system and bone. Aluminum binds with dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) and rickets. Aluminum's neurotoxicity is believed to involve several mechanisms. Changes in cytoskeletal protein functions as a results of altered phosphorylation, proteolysis, transport, and synthesis are believed to be one cause. Aluminum may induce neurobehavioral effects by affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier, cholinergic activity, signal transduction pathways, lipid peroxidation, and impair neuronal glutamate nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway, as well as interfere with metabolism of essential trace elements because of similar coordination chemistries and consequent competitive interactions. Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. Certain aluminum salts induce immune responses by activating inflammasomes. (L739, A235, A236) | Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. (A235)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid and included as an adjuvant in some vaccines. (L756)

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  Exposure Routes

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