Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Has known Side Effects
This is often the result of long or short term medication use. The same medication can have a range of side effects ranging from none at all to totally debilitating symptoms within different individuals. Reasons for this include individual genetics, individual detoxification capacity, nutrition status, duration of use and total number of medications being taken.
It becomes very difficult to establish clear causes of symptoms when multiple medications are being taken at once.
See SIDE EFFECTS LINKOUT at end of this profile.
- CATEGORIES: Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Medication or Drug | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only | Food Additives with E Numbers | Colours | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Homogeneous Metal Compounds | Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds | | Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds
- SYNONYMS: 13Al | Al | Aluminium | Aluminium(3+) | Aluminium(3+) ion | Aluminium(III) cation | Aluminum(3+) | Aluminum(3+) ion | Aluminum(III) cation | Metallic Aluminum | aluminum
- DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Additive | Aluminium is a soft, lightweight metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. Data indicate that aluminum contaminates much of the raw material used to manufacture solutions used for intravenous nutritional support of hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and that pharmaceutical manufacturers have only recently obtained the technology necessary to detect aluminum contamination of their products. As a result, aluminum bypassed normal barriers and entered the blood, accumulating in tissues such as bone, liver and the central nervous system with toxic consequences. Now that the FDA has finally issued a rule governing aluminum contamination in these solutions, manufacturers will need to develop methods to minimize such contamination; scientists should also realize that when data they obtain indicate a serious problem in the manufacturing sector they should be sure that the problem is properly addressed. Physiologically, this metal/element. exists as an ion in the body. (A7725). | E Number: E173 | Food Additives with E Numbers used in Australia, NZ, UK and the EU. Over 400 in total. | Substance has been approved in: Australia and NZ | EU and UK | | Colours | Colouring agent
- COMMENTS: Last update 2012 - FSANZ (Food Standards Australia New Zealand), UK and EU updated 2014 From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia: In contact with water releases flammable gases. Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air | | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: Al
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | FSANZ and FSA | T3DB | PubChem | FracFocus | EPA in USA | US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES | FDA Indirect Food Additives | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) | Drugbank
- LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Inhalating aluminum dust causes coughing and abnormal chest X-rays. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (L739, L740)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Aluminum targets the nervous system and causes decreased nervous system performance and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier. The accumulation of aluminum in the body may cause bone or brain diseases. High levels of aluminum have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium. (L739, L740) | Aluminum is poorly absorbed following oral or inhalation exposure and is essentially not absorbed dermally. The bioavailability of aluminum is strongly influenced by the aluminum compound and the presence of dietary constituents which can complex with aluminum and enhance or inhibit its absorption. Aluminum binds to various ligands in the blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found in bone and lung tissues. In living organisms, aluminum is believed to exist in four different forms: as free ions, as low-molecular-weight complexes, as physically bound macromolecular complexes, and as covalently bound macromolecular complexes. Absorbed aluminum is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the bile, while unabsorbed aluminum is excreted in the faeces. (L739)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: The main targets of aluminum are the central nervous system and bones. Aluminum binds to dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia and rickets. Aluminum's neurotoxicity is believed to involve different mechanisms. Changes in cytoskeletal protein functions as a result of altered phosphorylation, proteolysis, transport, and synthesis are believed to be one cause. Aluminum may induce neurobehavioral effects by affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier, cholinergic activity, signal transduction pathways, lipid peroxidation, and impair neuronal glutamate nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway, as well as interfere with metabolism of essential trace elements because of similar coordination chemistries and consequent competitive interactions. Aluminum can also interact with estrogen receptors, increasing the expression of estrogen-related genes and contributing to the progression of breast cancer. Certain aluminum salts induce immune responses by activating inflammasomes. (L739, A235, A236) Aluminum Acetate is an astringent. An astrignent is a chemical that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues, usually locally after topical medicinal application. The shrinkage or constriction is through osmotic flow of water (or other fluids) away from the area where the astringent was applied. Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. This can happen with a sore throat, hemorrhages, diarrhea, or with peptic ulcers. Externally applied astringents, which cause mild coagulation of skin proteins, dry, harden, and protect the skin. Acne sufferers are often advised to use astringents if they have oily skin. Astringents also help heal stretch marks and other scars. Mild astringent solutions are used in the relief of such minor skin irritations as those resulting from superficial cuts, allergies, insect bites, or fungal infections such as athlete's foot. | Aluminum binds with dietary phosphorus and impairs gastrointestinal absorption of phosphorus. The decreased phosphate body burden results in osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) and rickets. (L739)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Aluminum is used for beverage cans, pots and pans, airplanes, siding and roofing, and foil. It is often mixed with small amounts of other metals to form aluminum alloys, which are stronger and harder. Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, as alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. They are also found in consumer products such as antacids, astringents, buffered aspirin, food additives, cosmetics, and antiperspirants. (L739, L740) SEE MEDICATION SIDE EFFECTS
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