Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Toxic to Wildlife
May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.
Toxic to Bees
Bees pollinate plants. No pollination no plants. No plants no food. We go hungry or starve.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | insecticide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Slightly Toxic and Dangerous to Bees. Currently used in USA as a pesticide | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Lipids and Lipid-Like Molecules | Fatty Acyls | Fatty Acid Esters | Pyrethroids
- SYNONYMS: (+ )-Trans-bioallethrin | (+)-Allelrethonyl (+)-cis,trans-chrysanthemate | (+)-Allethronyl (+)-trans-chrysanthemumate | (+)-Trans-bioallethrin | (+)-trans-Chrysanthemumic acid ester OF (+-)-allethrolone | (+)-trans-Chrysanthemumic acid ester OF (.+-.)-allethrolone | (+-)-Allerethonyl (+-)-cis,trans-chrysanthemate | (.+-.)-Allelrethonyl (.+-.)-cis,trans-chrysanthemate | (.+/-.)-allelrethonyl (.+/-.)-cis,trans-chrysanthemate | 2,2-Dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid 2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-yl ester | 3-Allyl-2-methyl-4-oxo-2-cyclopenten-1-yl chrysanthemate | 3-Allyl-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-en-1-yl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)cyclopropanecarboxylate | 3-Allyl-4-keto-2-methylcyclopentenyl chrysanthemum monocarboxylate | Allethrin coil | Allethrin I | ALLETHRIN-1 | ALLETHRIN-2 | Allethrine | Allethrolone ester OF chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid | Alleviate | Allyl cinerin I | Allyl homolog of cinerin I | Allylrethronyl DL-cis-trans-chrysanthemate | Alpha-DL-trans-allethrin | Binamin forte | Bioaletrina | Bioaletrina (portuguese) | Bioallethrin | Caswell No. 025 | Cinerin I allyl homolog | Cis-allethrin | D-allethrin | D-allethrolone chrysanthemumate | D-allethrolone d-trans-chrysanthemumate | D-cis,trans-allethrin | D-t-allethrin | D-trans allethrin | Depallethrin | Duocide | Esbioallethrin | Esbiol | Esbiol concentrate | Esbiol TM Intermediate 3336 | Esbiothrin | Esdepallethrine | Exthrin | Matox | MGK allethrin concentrate | Necarboxylic acid | Pallethrine | Pynamin | Pynamin-forte | Pyresin | Pyresyn | Pyrethrin | Pyrexcel | Pyrocide | S-bioallethrin | Trans-(+)-allethrin | Trans-allethrin | Wasp killer II | Wasp stopper CF
- DESCRIPTION: Allethrin is a pyrethroid (type I) insecticide. A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical compound similar to the natural chemical pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum). Pyrethroids are common in commercial products such as household insecticides and insect repellents. In the concentrations used in such products, they are generally harmless to human beings but can harm sensitive individuals. They are usually broken apart by sunlight and the atmosphere in one or two days, and do not significantly affect groundwater quality except for being toxic to fish. (L811)
- COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are NOT tested for on Australian Foods even though the Pesticide is approved in Australia. This is partly so because this pesticide is not usually used around food agriculture. | Pesticide approved in Australia
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Harmful if inhaled. Harmful if swallowed. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C19H26O3
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Honeybee pesticide poisoning: a risk management tool for Australian farmers and beekeepers 2012 | Beekeeping -Department of Entomology - PROTECTING HONEY BEES FROM PESTICIDES, Christian H. Krupke et al.; www.extension.purdue.edu | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Following dermal exposure to allethrin, feelings of numbness, itching, burning, stinging, tingling, or warmth may occur, that could last for a few hours. Dizziness, headache, nausea, muscle twitching, reduced energy, and changes in awareness can result from inhalation or ingestion of large amounts of allethrin. (L857)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: As for every type I pyrethroid, allethrin effects typically include rapid onset of aggressive behavior and increased sensitivity to external stimuli, followed by fine tremor, prostration with coarse whole body tremor, elevated body temperature, coma, and death. Paresthesia can also occur after dermal exposure to allethrin. Is is likely to be a human carcinogen by the oral route. (L857) | Upon absorption of allethrine , biotransformation takes place through hydrolysis of the central ester bond, oxidative attacks at several sites, and conjugation reactions to produce a complex array of primary and secondary water-soluble metabolites that undergo urinary and biliary excretion. Allethrin is oxidized not only at the chrysanthemate isobutenyl moiety to the corresponding primary alcohol but also at the allyl group to 1'-hydroxyprop-2'-enyl and 2',3'-dihydroxy-propyl derivatives, or at a methyl group on the cyclopropyl moiety to a hydroxy derivative. It is widely accepted that metabolism results in the formation of compounds that have little or no demonstrable toxicity, although the formation of reactive or toxic intermediates cannot be ruled out, and it appears that cleavage of the ester bond results in substantial detoxification. Allethrin is also converted to chrysanthemum dicarboxylic acid and allethrolone. Allethrin leaves the body quickly, mainly in the urine, but also in feces and breath. (L857, A558)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Both type I and type II pyrethroids exert their effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. They appear to bind to the membrane lipid phase in the immediate vicinity of the sodium channel, thus modifying the channel kinetics. This blocks the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and thus prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state. The repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential produces effects quite similar to those produced by DDT, leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Other mechanisms of action of pyrethroids include antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, modulation of nicotinic cholinergic transmission, enhancement of noradrenaline release, and actions on calcium ions. They also inhibit calium channels and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase. (T10, T18, L857) | This pyrethroid exerts its profound effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. This pyrethroid is a axonic poison that block the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and, thus, prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Type I Pyrethroid esters (lacking the alpha-cyano substituents) affect sodium channels in nerve membranes, causing repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential, the effects being quite similar to those produced by DDT (L857, A560).
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Pyrethroids are used as insecticides. (L857)
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