Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | molluscicides | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organooxygen Compounds | Ethers | Acetals | Acetals
- SYNONYMS: 2,4,6,8-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxacyclooctane | 2,4,6,8-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetroxocane | Acetaldehyde tetramer | Agrimort | Ariotox | Cekumeta | Corry's slug death | Halizan | Helarion | Lumacrusk5 | Metacetaldehyde | Metaldehyd | Metaldeide | Puzomor | r-2,c-4,c-6,c-8-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetroxocane | Slug-tox | Snail-kil | Suprasnail
- DESCRIPTION: Metaldehyde is a cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde commonly used as a pesticide against slugs, snails, and other gastropods. Metaldehyde intoxication leads to central nervous system depression, and liver and kidney injury. (L1782)
- COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Flammable Solid. Harmful if swallowed | General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C8H16O4
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | EU Pesticides | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Ingestion is the most common route of metaldehyde poisoning. One to three hours after ingestion the following can occur: severe abdominal pain, nausea, salivation, vomiting, facial flushing, gastroenteritis, diarrhoea, metabolic acidosis, a marked rise in body temperature, drowsiness, convulsions, muscular rigidity, spasms, rhabdomyolysis and coma. Pulse and respiratory rate become progressively slower. Liver and kidney injury occurs at a later stage. Metaldehyde fumes may cause somnolence, uncoordinated movements, nausea, dizziness, CNS-depression, convulsions, and coma. Metaldehyde is also irritant to eyes and skin. (L1787)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Metaldehyde intoxicatin leads to central nervous system depression, and liver and kidney injury. Death from respiratory failure can occur within a few hours of exposure. (L1787) | Metaldehyde is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and may be absorbed from the skin or lungs. Metaldehyde slowly hydrolyses to acetaldehyde in acid solutions (i.e., in the stomach). Acetaldehyde is then oxidized to acetic acid. (L1787)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: The toxicologically active substance in metaldehyde intoxication is mainly the degradation product acetaldehyde; other toxic products are probably also formed. Acetaldehyde acts as a releasing factor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA). It also competitively inhibits biogenic amine oxidation which, in turn, decreases 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a metabolite of 5-HT by competitively inhibiting 5-HT-oxidation. Acetaldehyde also increases monoamine oxidase activity and decreases central serotonin levels. (L1782) |
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Metaldehyde is used as a pesticide against slugs, snails, and other gastropods, it is also used in tablets as a solid fuel for small heaters, and as fire-starter. (L1782)
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