Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Identification Number: CASRN | 94-75-7

  Substance Attributes

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.

  • CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | herbicide | plant growth regulator | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Pesticide approved or pending approval in EU | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Phenoxyacetic Acid Derivatives | Phenoxyacetic Acid Derivatives
  • SYNONYMS: (2 | 4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid | (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-Acetic acid | (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid | (2,4-Dichlorophenyloxy)acetic acid | (2,4-Dichlorphenoxy)acetic acid | (Dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid | 2,4-D | 2,4-D Mecoprop | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyethanoic acid | Agrotect | Amidox | Aminopielik 50SL | Amoxone | Aqua-Kleen | Atlas D | B-Selektonon | Barrage HF | Brush-rhap | Chipco turf herbicide D | Chipco turf herbicide quot DQuot | Chloroxone | Crop rider | Crotilin | Dacamine | Debroussaillant 600 | Decamine | Ded-Weed | Ded-Weed LV-69 | Desormone | Dezormon | Diclordon | Dicopur | Dicotox | Dinoxol | DMA-4 | Dormone | Emulsamine bk | Emulsamine E-3 | Envert 171 | Envert dt | Esteron | Esteron 44 weed killer | Esteron 76 BE | Esteron 99 | Esteron 99 concentrate | Esteron brush killer | Esterone | Esterone four | Estone | Farmco | Fernesta | Fernimine | Fernoxone | Ferxone | Foredex 75 | Formula 40 | Hedonal | Herbidal | Huragan | Ipaner | Krotiline | Lawn-keep | Macrondray | Miracle | Monosan | Mota Maskros | Moxone | Netagrone | Netagrone 600 | Pennamine | Pennamine D | Phenox | Pielik | Planotox | Plantgard | Rhodia | Salvo | Spontox | Spritz-hormin/2,4-D | Spritz-hormit/2,4-D | Super D weedone | Superormone concentre | Tiller S | Transamine | Tributon | Trinoxol | Uniso | Vergemaster | Verton | Verton 2-D | Verton 2D | Verton D | Vertron 2D | Vidon 638 | Visko-rhap | Weed tox | Weed-ag-bar | Weed-B-gon | Weed-Rhap | Weedar | Weedar-64 | Weedatul | Weedez wonder bar | Weedone | Weedone LV4 | Weedtrol
  • DESCRIPTION: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. It is the most widely used herbicide in the world, and the third most commonly used in North America. 2,4-D is also an important synthetic auxin, often used in laboratories for plant research and as a supplement in plant cell culture media such as MS medium. (S685). 2,4-D can be formulated as emulsifiable concentrates, granules, soluble concentrate and solids, water-dispersible granules, and wettable powders. 2,4-D is used alone, but is commonly formulated with dicamba, mecoprop, mecoprop-p, MCPA, and clopyralid. 2,4-D was one of the ingredients in Agent Orange, the herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War. Though 2,4-D composed 50% of Agent Orange, the health effects of Agent Orange are related to dioxin contaminants generated during the production of Agent Orange – not 2,4-D itself. On August 8, 2007, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a ruling that stated that existing data do not support a link between human cancer and 2,4-D exposure.
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Harmful if swallowed. May cause respiratory irritation. Causes serious eye damage. May cause an allergic skin reaction. Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects | General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C8H6Cl2O3
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | EU Pesticides | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of acute oral exposure include vomiting, diarrhea, headache, confusion, aggressive or bizarre behavior, hypotension and muscle twitching. Skeletal muscle injury and renal failure may also occur. Prolonged dermal exposure may include skin irritation, whereas prolonged inhalation exposure may lead to coughing and burning sensations in the upper respiratory tract and chest.
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: All forms of 2,4-D are considered low in toxicity when absorbed via skin or via inhalation. The acid and salt forms of 2,4-D are highly toxic to eye tissue. Long term chronic exposure to 2,4-D has been linked to non-Hodgkins lymphoma and Parkinson’s disease but these are epidemiological associations only. 2,4-D is also reported to have negative effects on the endocrine system (specifically the thyroid and gonads) and immune system. 2,4-D displaces sex hormones from the protein (sex hormone binding globulin) that normally transports these hormones in the blood. 2,4-D reduces the activity of several proteins important to immune system function. Researchers at NIOSH have demonstrated a decreased production of cells responsible for making antibodies in mice bone marrow, in addition to decreased T-cells, produced in the thymus. | Metabolism of 2,4-D is minimal in humans, with nearly all of it excreted unchanged as the parent compound. In particular, 2,4-D is rapidly excreted from the body, primarily in the urine. Much of the compound appears to be eliminated unchanged, although some 2,4-D is eliminated from the body as a conjugate. 2,4-D is metabolized to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4), the major form of monooxygenase enzyme in the human liver.
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a strong oxidant and is known to cause lipid peroxidation and the generation of free radicals that can modify lipids and proteins. It is also known to inhibit glutathione S transferase which leads to a depletion of ATP, NADPH and glutathione (A3122, A3123). These actions can cause cell toxicity and apopotosis among metabolically active cells. Some of the endocrine effects of 2,4-D may be mediated by the 2,4-D mediated displacement of sex hormones from the sex hormone binding globulin or the 2,4-D mediated blocking or OAT6 transport proteins that are needed for the transport of functional organic ions and dicarboxylates (including estrone sulfate). |
  • Additional Exposure Routes: 2,4-D is is an agrochemical - a substance that is used in agriculture or horticulture. It is a broadleaf herbicide, which when sprayed or dusted on plants causes its leaves to fall off, and functions as a synthetic auxin. 2,4-D is commonly found in lawn care products; wheat, corn, and other grass family herbicides; forestry products; treatments for roadside weeds; and aquatic weed control products.

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