Toxno Substance Profile
Evidence-based data. We have more than 25,000 profiles on Toxno.
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Substance Name

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
Identification Number: CASRN | 872-50-4

  Substance Attributes


  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Chemical used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Food Use Permitted | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Pyrrolidines | N-Alkylpyrrolidines | N-alkylpyrrolidines
  • SYNONYMS: 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone | 1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one | N-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinone | N-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidone | N-Methyl-gamma-butyrolactam | NMP
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Experimental | 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, or N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), is a chemical compound with 5-membered lactam structure. It is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid miscible with water. It is used in petrochemical processing, and as a solvent for surface treatment of textiles, resins and metal coated plastics or as a paint stripper. In the pharmaceutical industry, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is used in the formulation for drugs by both oral and transdermal delivery routes. NMP has been identified as a reproductive toxicant, first by California in 2001[3] and then by the European Commission in 2003. In the face of increasing regulation, some manufacturers are considering alternative solvents for some applications, especially where worker exposure is difficult to control, such as in paint stripping, graffiti removal, and agriculture. (Wikipedia)
  • COMMENTS:

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    May damage the unborn child. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation. Causes skin irritation | Chronic Health Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C5H9NO
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | CPDB | T3DB | PubChem | OEHHA | FracFocus | EPA in USA | US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES | FDA Indirect Food Additives | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Rapid, irregular respiration, shortnessof breath, decreased pain reflex, and slight bloody nasalsecretion.
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: | 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is rapidly biotransformed by hydroxylation to 5-hydroxy- N -methyl-2-pyrrolidone, which is further oxidized to N -methylsuccinimide; this intermediate is further hydroxylated to 2-hydroxy- N - methylsuccinimide. These metabolites are all colourless. The excreted amounts of NMP metabolites in the urine after inhalation or oral intake represented about 100% and 65% of the administered doses, respectively.
  • ACTION OF TOXIN:
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular", "Microsome", "Microtubule", "Mitochondrion", "Plasma Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is used in petrochemical processing, and as a solvent for surface treatment of textiles, resins and metal coated plastics or as a paint stripper. In the pharmaceutical industry, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is used in the formulation for drugs by both oral and transdermal delivery routes.

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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