Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Toxic to Wildlife
May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Chemical Found in Air near CSG Operations | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Hydrocarbons | Alkanes | Acyclic Alkanes | Acyclic Alkanes
- SYNONYMS: 1,1-Dimethylbutane | 2-Methyl pentane | 2-Methyl-pentane | Dimethylpropylmethane | Isohexane | Methyl pentane
- DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | 2-Methylpentane is an isomer of hexane. Hexane is a chemical made from crude oil. It is highly flammable, and its vapors can be explosive. Pure hexane is used in laboratories. Most of the hexane used in industry is mixed with similar chemicals called solvents. The major use for solvents containing hexane is to extract vegetable oils from crops such as soybeans. These solvents are also used as cleaning agents in the printing, textile, furniture, and shoemaking industries. Certain kinds of special glues used in the roofing and shoe and leather industries also contain hexane. Several consumer products contain hexane, such as gasoline, quick-drying glues used in various hobbies, and rubber cement. (L175)
- COMMENTS: This Chemical is in the category of VOC and is found in Air near CSG Operations
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Highly flammable liquid and vapour. May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. Causes skin irritation. May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C6H14
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Article-Colborn-Air | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Breathing large amounts of hexane causes numbness in the feet and hands, followed by muscle weakness in the feet and lower legs. Continued exposure may lead to paralysis of the arms and legs. However, if removed from the exposure, recovery occurs in 6 months to a year. Inhalation of high concentrations produces first a state of mild euphoria, followed by somnolence with headaches and nausea. (L175, A121)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Hexane mainly affects the nervous system. It causes degeneration of the peripheral nervous system (and eventually the central nervous system), starting with damage to the nerve axons. Exposure to hexane may also damage the lungs and reproductive system. (L977, L978) | Hexane is mainly absorbed via inhalation, as it is readily absorbed by the lungs. It is distributed throughout the body in the blood, and metabolized by mixed function oxidases in the liver to a number of metabolites. The initial reaction is oxidation by cytochrome P-450 isozymes to hexanols, predominantly 2-hexanol. Further reactions convert 2-hexanol to 2-hexanone, 2,5-hexanediol, 5-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hexanone and the neurotoxicant 2,5-hexanedione. Hexane metabolites are excreted in the urine, while unchanged hexane is excreted in expired air. (L175)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Hexane's toxicity is caused by it neurotoxic metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione. It damages the central and peripheral nervous system by causing axonal swelling and degeneration. 2,5-Hexanedione also reacts with lysine side-chain amino groups in axonal cytoskeletal proteins to form pyrroles. This results in neurofilament cross-linking and loss of function. (L175) | One of the metabolites of hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, forms adducts with myelin basic protein. This disrupts the structural integrity of myelin, affecting its ability to protect the axon. (A123)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Pure hexane is used in laboratories. Most of the hexane used in industry is mixed with similar chemicals called solvents. The major use for solvents containing hexane is to extract vegetable oils from crops such as soybeans. These solvents are also used as cleaning agents in the printing, textile, furniture, and shoemaking industries. Certain kinds of special glues used in the roofing and shoe and leather industries also contain hexane. Several consumer products contain hexane, such as gasoline, quick-drying glues used in various hobbies, and rubber cement. (L175)
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