Toxno Substance Profile
Evidence-based data. We have more than 25,000 profiles on Toxno.
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Substance Name

Isopentane
Identification Number: CASRN | 78-78-4

  Substance Attributes


  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

  • Volatile - Evaporates easily

    This substance easily enters the air we breath. Not really a nastiness attribute, but this feature helps rapidly spread other nastiness attributes this substance may have.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Chemical Found in Air near CSG Operations | Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Hydrocarbons | Alkanes | Acyclic Alkanes | Acyclic Alkanes
  • SYNONYMS: (CH3)2CH-CH2-CH3 | 1,1,2-Trimethylethane | 1,1-dimethylpropane | 2-Methylbutane | Dimethylethylmethane | Ethyldimethylmethane | Exxsol isopentane | Iso-C5H12 | Iso-pentane | Isoamylhydride | Methylbutane | R-601a
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Condensate water | Isopentane is a hydrocarbon and one of three isomers of pentane. Pentanes are components of some fuels, such as gasoline, and are also used as specialty solvents in the laboratory. (L1287)
  • COMMENTS: This Chemical is in the category of VOC and is found in Air near CSG Operations

    From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:

    Extremely flammable liquid and vapour. May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Chronic Health Hazard Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

    Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.

    The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C5H12
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Article-Colborn-2010 | FracFocus | EPA in USA | Article-Colborn-Air | FDA Indirect Food Additives | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Pentane is a central nervous system depressant and can cause anorexia, euphoria, dizziness, headache, depression, confusion, inability to concentrate, anoxia, narcosis, and loss of consciousness and coma at high concentrations. Contact with the skin results in cause drying, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hyperemia, dermatitis, burning pain, and blisters. (T14, T29, A600)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Pentane is a central nervous system depressant and can cause loss of consciousness and coma at high doses. Ingestion may cause pulmonary toxicity due to pentane aspiration, including chemical pneumonitis, acute lung injury, and hemorrhage. Cardiovascular effects may include ventricular dysrhythmias and sudden death. (T29, A600) | Pentane is absorbed following inhalation and ingestion, and to a small extent from dermal exposure. Once in the body it distributes to the tissues and blood, with the highest concentration in the adipose tissue. Pentane is metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 system. The main metabolite is 2-pentanol, followed by 3-pentanol, and 2-pentanone. These intermediates are further metabolized to glucuronic acid conjugates or oxidized to ketone products, which are excreted in the urine and expired air. (A600)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Pentane is a central nervous system depressant. It affects the peripheral nervous system through demyelinization and axonal degeneration. (T29) |
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Pentanes are components of some fuels, such as gasoline, and are also used as specialty solvents in the laboratory. (L1287)

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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