Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Identification Number: CASRN | 7440-31-5

  Substance Attributes

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

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  • CATEGORIES: Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Pesticide | Household Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Homogeneous Metal Compounds | Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds | | Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds
  • SYNONYMS: Sn | Sn(2+) | Sn(4+) | Sn(II) | Sn(IV) | Stanum | Tin flake | Tin powder | Tin(2+) ion | Tin(4+) ion | Tin(II) ion | Tin(IV) ion
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Tin is a trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71. (PubChem). Experimental studies over the last decade have suggested an association between thymus immune and homeostatic function and exogenous tin. It has been hypothesized that the thymus gland synthesizes and secretes one or more tin bearing factors that enhance immune defenses against malignancy and retard the gradual loss of immune capacity with senescence. (A7774). Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Inorganic tin salts are poorly absorbed and rapidly excreted in the faeces; as a result they have a low toxicity. Only about 5 per cent is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, widely distributed in the body, then excreted by the kidney. Some tin is deposited in lung and bone. Some tin salts can cause renal necrosis after parenteral doses. Mutagenic studies on metallic tin and its compounds have been negative. Long-term animal carcinogenic studies have shown fewer malignant tumors in animals exposed to tin than in controls. Human volunteers developed mild signs of toxicity with tin, given in fruit juices, at a concentration of 1400 mg per litre. The WHO 1973 permissible limit for tin in tinned food is 250 micrograms per kg. The adult daily intake of tin was about 17 mg per day in 1940, but it has now decreased to about 3.5 mg, due to improvements in technique of tinning with enamel overcoat and crimped lids to minimize exposure to tin and lead solder. (A7775).
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Inorganic or organic tin compounds placed on the skin or in the eyes can produce skin and eye irritation. (L308)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Metallic tin is not very toxic due to its poor gastrointestinal absorption. However, ingestion of large amounts of inorganic tin compounds can cause stomachache, anemia, and liver and kidney problems. Breathing or swallowing, or skin contact with organotins, can interfere with the way the brain and nervous system work, causing death in severe cases. Organic tin compounds may also damage the immune and reproductive system. (L307, L308) | Though tin metal is very poorly absorbed, tin compounds may be absorbed via oral, inhalation, or dermal routes, with organotin compounds being much more readily absorbed than inorganic tin compounds. Tin may enter the bloodstream and bind to hemoglobin, where it is distributed and accumulates mainly in the kidney, liver, lung, and bone. Organotin compounds may undergo dealkylation, hydroxylation, dearylation, and oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver. The alkyl products of dealkylation are conjugated with glutathione and further metabolized to mercapturic acid derivatives. Tin and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine and feces. (L308)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Organotin compounds produce neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Organotins may directly activate glial cells contributing to neuronal cell degeneration by local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, and/or interleukins. They may also induce apoptosis by direct action on neuronal cells. Organotin compounds stimulate the neuronal release of and/or decrease of neuronal cell uptake of neurotransmitters in brain tissue, including aspartate, GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin. This may be either a contributing factor to or result of the neuronal cell loss. The immunotoxic effects of organotins are characterized by thymic atrophy caused by the suppression of proliferation of immature thymocytes and apoptosis of mature thymocytes. Organotin compounds are believed to exert these effects by suppressing DNA and protein synthesis, inducing the expression of genes involved in apoptosis (such as nur77), and disrupting the regulation of intracellular calcium levels, giving rise to the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and the proteolytic and nucleolytic cascade of apoptosis. The suppression of proliferation of immature thymocytes further results in the suppression of T-cell-mediated immune responses. Organotins are also endocrine disruptors and are believed to contribute to obesity by inappropriate receptor activation, leading to adipocyte differentiation. Inorganic tin triggers eryptosis, contributing to tin-induced anemia. (L308, A182, A184) | Organotins inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of 20S and cellular proteasomes by binding to the beta-5 subunit. This results in apoptosis caused by downstream effects in the proteasome pathway. (A181)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Tin is found in many alloys, such as brass, bronze, and pewter, as well as soldering materials. Tin metal is also used to line cans for food, beverages, and aerosols. Inorganic tin compounds are used in toothpaste, perfumes, soaps, food additives and dyes. Organotin compounds are used to make plastics, food packages, plastic pipes, pesticides, paints, and pest repellents. (L307, L309)

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.

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