Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | insecticide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California)
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Heterocyclic Compounds | Isoindoles and Derivatives | Isoindolines | Isoindolones
- SYNONYMS: (1-Cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximido)methyl chrysanthemate | (1-Cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximido)methyl chrysanthemumate | Cyclohexene-1-dicarboximidomethylchrysanthemate | Etramethrin isomer | Killgerm PY-kill w | N-(Chrysanthemoxymethyl)-1-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide | Neo-pynamin | Neopinamin | Neopinamine | Neopynamin | Phthalthrin | PY-kill | Tetramethrin isomer
- DESCRIPTION: Tetramethrin is a potent synthetic insecticide in the pyrethroid (type 1) family. A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical compound similar to the natural chemical pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum). Pyrethroids are common in commercial products such as household insecticides and insect repellents. In the concentrations used in such products, they are generally harmless to human beings but can harm sensitive individuals. They are usually broken apart by sunlight and the atmosphere in one or two days, and do not significantly affect groundwater quality except for being toxic to fish. (L811)
- COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are NOT tested for on Australian Foods even though the Pesticide is approved in Australia. This is partly so because this pesticide is not usually used around food agriculture. | Pesticide approved in Australia
- FORMULA: C19H25NO4
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Following oral exposure, severe fine tremor, marked reflex hyperexcitability, sympathetic activation can occur. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain commonly occur and develop following ingestion. Sudden bronchospasm, swelling of oral and laryngeal mucous membranes, and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported after inhalation. Hypersensitivity reactions characterized by pneumonitis, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, chest pain, irritability to sound and touch, and bronchospasm may occur too . Dermatitis is the main effect of a dermal exposure to tetramethrin. (T36)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Pyrethroid effects typically include rapid onset of aggressive behavior and increased sensitivity to external stimuli, followed by fine tremor, prostration with coarse whole body tremor, elevated body temperature, coma, and death. Paresthesia, severe corneal damage, hypotension and tachycardia, associated with anaphylaxis, can also occur following pyrethriod poisoning. (L857) | The reactions occuring during metabolism of tetramethrin are: ester cleavage; loss of the hydroxymethyl group from the alcohol moiety; reduction of the 1-2 bond of the alcohol moiety; oxidation at the isobutenyl methyl moiety of the acid and at the 2-, 3-, and 4-positions of the alcohol moiety; conjugation of the resultant acids and alcohols with glucuronic acid; and cis/trans isomerization. The metabolites are excreted in the urine and faeces in more or less equal amounts. (L870)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Both type I and type II pyrethroids exert their effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. They appear to bind to the membrane lipid phase in the immediate vicinity of the sodium channel, thus modifying the channel kinetics. This blocks the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and thus prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state. The repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential produces effects quite similar to those produced by DDT, leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Other mechanisms of action of pyrethroids include antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, modulation of nicotinic cholinergic transmission, enhancement of noradrenaline release, and actions on calcium ions. They also inhibit calium channels and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase. (T10, T18, L857) | This pyrethroid exerts its profound effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. This pyrethroid is a axonic poison that block the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and, thus, prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Type I Pyrethroid esters (lacking the alpha-cyano substituents) affect sodium channels in nerve membranes, causing repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential, the effects being quite similar to those produced by DDT (L857, A560).
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Pyrethroids are used as insecticides. (L857)
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