Toxin Profiles

Substance Name

Styrene
Identification Number: CASRN | 100-42-5

  Nastiness Attributes


  • Known Human Carcinogen

    This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Endocrine Disrupter

    Interferes with your hormones. Hormones are powerful messengers that can bind to DNA. You don't want to mess with them.

  • Mutagenic Properties

    Cause mutations to Genetic material like DNA, RNA or mitochondrial DNA

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Volatile - Evaporates easily

    This substance easily enters the air we breath. Not really a nastiness attribute, but this feature helps rapidly spread other nastiness attributes this substance may have.


  • CATEGORIES: Chemical Found in Air near CSG Operations | Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Cigarette Toxin | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Odor | This Chemical is an Odorant and has a smell like - sweet | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Non Food Use Only | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - FRAGRANCE ( Generally Not used on Food) | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Styrenes | Styrenes
  • SYNONYMS: Cinnamene | Cinnamenol | Cinnaminol | Cinnamol | Ethenyl-Benzene | Ethenylbenzene | Phenethylene | Phenyl-Ethylene | Phenylethene | Phenylethylene | Styrol | Styrolene | Vinyl benzene | Vinyl-Benzene | Vinylbenzene | Vinylbenzol
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Proppant, fracturing | Styrene is found in alcoholic beverages. Styrene is present in cranberry, bilberry, currants, grapes, vinegar, parsley, milk and dairy products, whisky, cocoa, coffee, tea, roasted filberts and peanuts. Styrene is a flavouring ingredient. Polymers are used in ion-exchange resins in food processing. Indirect food additive arising from adhesives, oatings and packaging materials. Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene, is a colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations confer a less pleasant odor. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. Low levels of styrene occur naturally in plants as well as a variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, beverages, and meats. (Wikipedia) Styrene has been shown to exhibit signalling and catabolic functions (A7738, A7739).Styrene belongs to the family of Styrenes. These are organic compounds containing an ethenylbenzene moiety.
  • COMMENTS: This Chemical is in the category of VOC and is found in Air near CSG Operations From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia: Flammable liquid and vapour. Harmful if inhaled. Causes serious eye irritation. Causes skin irritation | General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C8H8
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | CPDB | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | NTP | Article-Colborn-2010 | EPA in USA | Article-Colborn-Air | Flavornet | EAFUS | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Breathing high levels of styrene may cause nervous system effects such as changes in color vision, tiredness, feeling drunk, slowed reaction time, concentration problems, or balance problems. Chest burning, wheezing, and dyspnea may also occur. Styrene is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. (L1831, L1832)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Styrene causes nervous system depression and may be carcinogenic. Animals studies have also shown that hearing loss and liver damage may occur. (L1831, L1832) | Styrene may be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. It distributes throughout the body in the blood, concentrating in the adipose tissue, kidney, and liver. The primary metabolic pathway is oxidation of the side chain by cytochrome P450 to form styrene 7,8-oxide. Styrene oxide is predominantly metabolized by epoxide hydrolase to form styrene glycol; the styrene glycol is subsequently converted to mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, and hippuric acid. Styrene 7,8-oxide can also be conjugated with glutathione to ultimately form phenylhydroxylethylmercapturic acids. A minor pathway of styrene metabolism involves the formation of phenylacetaldehyde from styrene 7,8-oxide or cytochrome P450 conversion of styrene to pheylethanol and subsequent metabolism to phenylacetic acid. An alternative minor pathway involves ring oxidation resulting in the production of styrene 3,4-oxide, which is further metabolized to 4-vinylphenol. The metabolites of styrene are excreted mainly in the urine. (T45)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Styrene 7,8-oxide, a metabolite of styrene, can form DNA adducts by binding to deoxyguanosine. It is also mutagenic and causes increased frequency of sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated cells, and DNA strand breaks. (L1831) | Styrene 7,8-oxide, a metabolite of styrene, can form DNA adducts by binding to deoxyguanosine. It is also mutagenic and causes increased frequency of sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated cells, and DNA strand breaks. (L1831)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Styrene is used to make plastics and rubber. It is a precursor to polystyrene and may be found in insulation, fiberglass, plastic pipes, automobile parts, shoes, drinking cups and other food containers, and carpet backing. Low levels of styrene also occur naturally in a variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, beverages, and meats. Small amounts of styrene can be transferred to food from styrene-based packaging material. (L1831)

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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