Toxno Substance Profile
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Substance Name

Sodium chloride
Identification Number: CASRN | 7647-14-5

  Substance Attributes


  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.


    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Soluble in Water

    This substance easily dissolves in water. As such it can be easily transported via waterways. Not really a nastiness attribute, but this feature helps rapidly spread other nastiness attributes this substance may have.

  • Has known Side Effects

    This is often the result of long or short term medication use. The same medication can have a range of side effects ranging from none at all to totally debilitating symptoms within different individuals. Reasons for this include individual genetics, individual detoxification capacity, nutrition status, duration of use and total number of medications being taken.


    It becomes very difficult to establish clear causes of symptoms when multiple medications are being taken at once.


    See SIDE EFFECTS LINKOUT at end of this profile.

These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



  • CATEGORIES: Chemical used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Household Toxin | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | PESTICIDE active ingredient | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Food Use Permitted | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Medication Approved in Australian (on the PBS) | Medication Approved in USA
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds | Alkali Metal Salts | Alkali Metal Chlorides | Carboxylic acids
  • SYNONYMS:
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Friction reducer, diverting agent, additive, unknown, fracturing | Sodium chloride or table salt is a mineral substance belonging to the larger class of compounds called ionic salts. Salt in its natural form is known as rock salt or halite. Salt is present in vast quantities in the ocean, which has about 35 grams of sodium chloride per litre, corresponding to a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous of food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Salt is produced from salt mines or by the evaporation of seawater or mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Salt is used in many industrial processes and in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, plastics, paper pulp and many other consumer products. Of the global annual production of around 200,000,000 tonnes of salt, only 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include water conditioning, highway de-icing and various agricultural applications. For humans, salt is a major source of sodium. Sodium is essential to life: it helps nerves and muscles to function correctly, and it is one of the factors involved in the regulation of water content.
  • COMMENTS:
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: ClNa
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Article-Colborn-2010 | FracFocus | EPA in USA | US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES | APPEA | EAFUS | DPR | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Australian Approved Medications PBS | USA FDA APPROVED DRUG PRODUCTS
  • LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Acute salt overdoses can lead to muscle cramps, dizziness or neurological conditions.
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps, dizziness, or electrolyte disturbance, which can cause neurological problems, or eveb death. Death can occur by ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight). Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics, forced salt intake, and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. Long term or chronically excessive intake of salt can lead to stroke, high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and stomach cancer. |
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: A high salt diet disrupts the natural sodium balance in the body. This causes fluid retention which increases the pressure exerted by the blood against blood vessel walls leading to high blood pressure or hypertension. It has been estimated that a reduction in salt intake from 10g a day to 6g could reduce blood pressure sufficiently that it would lead to a 16% reduction in deaths from strokes and a 12% reduction in deaths from coronary heart disease. |
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Salt is used for food flavouring, food, plastic production, paper production, water conditioning, de-icing, agricultural applications. Salt is produced from salt mines or by the evaporation of seawater or mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools.
  • SEE MEDICATION SIDE EFFECTS

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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