Known Human Carcinogen
This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.
Negative impact on brain and nervous system.
Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Serious Acute Effects
This is a serious nasty substance. Effects are Acute (seen immediately). Substances in this category may be FATAL or acutely toxic if inhaled, skin contact or swallowed. See further details.
Toxic to Wildlife
May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.
Toxic to Bees
Bees pollinate plants. No pollination no plants. No plants no food. We go hungry or starve.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Pesticide | Household Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Synthetic Toxin | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | insecticide | acaricide | Pesticide or Plant Growth Regulator Approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | Highly Toxic and Dangerous to bees. Currently used in USA as a pesticide | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Benzenoids | Benzene and Substituted Derivatives | Phenol Ethers | Phenol Ethers
- SYNONYMS: 2-(1-Methylethoxy)phenol methylcarbamate | 2-(1-Methylethoxy)phenyl methyl carbamate | 2-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl methylcarbamate | 2-(1-Methylethoxy)phenyl N-methylcarbamate | 2-(propan-2-yloxy)phenyl methylcarbamate | 2-Isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate | 2-Isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate | 2-Isopropoxyphenyl-N-methylcarbamat | 2-Isopropoxyphenyl-N-methylcarbamate | 2-[(1-methylethyl)oxy]phenyl methylcarbamate | Aprocarb | Arporcarb | Bayer B 5122 | Baygon | Bifex | Blattanex | Blattanex 20 | Blattosep | Bolfo | Boruho | Boruho 50 | Boygon | Brifur | Brygou | Carbamic acid | methyl- | 2-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl ester | Carbamic acid | methyl- | O-isopropoxyphenyl ester | Caswell No. 508 | Chemagro 9010 | Dalf dust | Fumite propoxur | Invisi-gard | IPMC | Isocarb | Isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate | Mrowkozol | N-2-(1-Methylethoxy)phenyl methyl-carbamate | N-Methyl-2-isopropoxyphenylcarbamate | O isopropoxyphenylmethylcarbamate | O-(2-Isopropoxyphenyl) N-methylcarbamate | O-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate | O-isopropoxyphenyl n-methylcarbamate | O-isopropoxyphenylmethylcarbamate | PHC (carbamate) | Phenol | o-isopropoxy- | methylcarbamate | Pillargon | Propogon | Propoksuru | Propotox | Propotox m | Propoxure | Propoxylor | Propyon | Rhoden | Sendran | Suncide | Tendex | Tugen | Tugon fliegenkugel | Undeen | Unden (pesticide) | Unden 50PM | Undene
- DESCRIPTION: Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are derived from carbamic acid and kill insects in a similar fashion as organophosphate insecticides. They are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. The first carbamate, carbaryl, was introduced in 1956 and more of it has been used throughout the world than all other carbamates combined. Because of carbaryl's relatively low mammalian oral and dermal toxicity and broad control spectrum, it has had wide use in lawn and garden settings. Most of the carbamates are extremely toxic to Hymenoptera, and precautions must be taken to avoid exposure to foraging bees or parasitic wasps. Some of the carbamates are translocated within plants, making them an effective systemic treatment. (L795)
- COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are tested for on Australian Foods | Pesticide approved in Australia
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
Toxic if swallowed. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects | Environmental Hazard Acutely Toxic | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: C11H15NO3
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | OEHHA | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Honeybee pesticide poisoning: a risk management tool for Australian farmers and beekeepers 2012 | Beekeeping -Department of Entomology - PROTECTING HONEY BEES FROM PESTICIDES, Christian H. Krupke et al.; www.extension.purdue.edu | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: As with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (L795)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Acute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Chronically high (>10 years) exposure leads to neuropsychological consequences including disturbances in perception and visuo-motor processing (A15321). | The carbamates are hydrolyzed enzymatically by the liver; degradation products are excreted by the kidneys and the liver. (L793)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Propoxur is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Carbamates form unstable complexes with chlolinesterases by carbamoylation of the active sites of the enzymes. This inhibition is reversible. A cholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. | Like the organophosphates, their mode of action is inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes, affecting nerve impulse transmission. (L795)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Membrane"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Propoxur is widely used as an insecticide or pesticide in homes, gardens and agricultural applications. It is a synthetic compound.
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