Toxin Profiles

Substance Name

Bronopol
Identification Number: CASRN | 52-51-7

  Nastiness Attributes


  • Endocrine Disrupter

    Interferes with your hormones. Hormones are powerful messengers that can bind to DNA. You don't want to mess with them.

  • Reproductive Effects

    Interferes with fertility

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.

  • Toxic to Wildlife

    May kill plants, fish, birds or other animals and insects or may be very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. This then effects delicate environmental ecology and food supply in ways we don't fully understand yet.

  • Soluble in Water

    This substance easily dissolves in water. As such it can be easily transported via waterways. Not really a nastiness attribute, but this feature helps rapidly spread other nastiness attributes this substance may have.


  • CATEGORIES: Chemical used in hydraulic fracturing fluids | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Synthetic Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | PESTICIDE active ingredient | organic | bactericide | Inert Pesticide Ingredient USA - Food Use Permitted | Pesticide approved in Australia | Pesticide approved in USA (California) | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Organic Compounds | Organic 1,3-Dipolar Compounds | Allyl-Type 1,3-Dipolar Organic Compounds | Nitro Compounds | Nitro Compounds
  • SYNONYMS: 2-Bromo-1-nitro-1,3-propanediol | 2-Bromo-2-nitro-1 | 3-propanediol | 2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol | 2-Bromo-2-nitropropan-1,3-diol | 2-Bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol | 2-Nitro-2-bromo-1 | 3-propanediol | 2-Nitro-2-bromo-1,3-propanediol | b-bromo-b-nitrotrimethyleneglycol | Beta-bromo-beta-nitrotrimethyleneglycol | Bioban BNPD-40 | Bronidiol | Bronocot | Bronopol-boots | Bronopolu | Bronosol | Bronotak | Broponol | C3H6BrNO4 | Canguard 409 | Epon(r) substitute embedding medium kit | Epoxy embedding medium kit | Lexgard bronopol | Myacide as plus | Myacide S-1 | S-2 | Onyxide 500
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Biocide, fracturing | Bronopol is a chemical compound of bromine and an antimicrobial substance. It is used as a preservative in pharmaceuticals, as well as numerous consumer products such as shampoos and cosmetics. It is also used as an antimicrobial in many industrial environments such as paper mills, oil exploration and production facilities, as well as cooling water disinfection plants. Its use is declining due to its recognized potential to decompose into carcinogenic nitrosamines. It is also a formaldehyde releaser. (L643, L1893)
  • COMMENTS: Residues of this pesticide are NOT tested for on Australian Foods even though the Pesticide is approved in Australia. This is partly so because this pesticide is not usually used around food agriculture. | Pesticide approved in Australia From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia: Harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if swallowed. May cause respiratory irritation. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye damage. Very toxic to aquatic life | Environmental Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: C3H6BrNO4
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | Article-Colborn-2010 | FracFocus | EPA in USA | US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES | FDA Indirect Food Additives | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA | Compendium of Pesticide Common Names | APVMA | DPR | EPA USA - Pesticide Inerts | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS:
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Bronopol may react to produce nitrosamines, which are believed to be carcinogenic. It also releases formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen. (L962, A2881) | Nitrosamines can enter the body via ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Once in the body, nitrosamines are metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes, which essentially activates them into carcinogens. Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase. Formaldehyde may be absorbed following inhalation, oral, or dermal exposure. It is an essential metabolic intermediate in all cells and is produced during the normal metabolism of serine, glycine, methionine, and choline and also by the demethylation of N-, S-, and O-methyl compounds. Exogenous formaldehyde is metabolized to formate by the enzyme formaldehyde dehydrogenase at the initial site of contact. After oxidation of formaldehyde to formate, the carbon atom is further oxidized to carbon dioxide or incorporated into purines, thymidine, and amino acids via tetrahydrofolatedependent one-carbon biosynthetic pathways. Formaldehyde is not stored in the body and is excreted in the urine (primarily as formic acid), incorporated into other cellular molecules, or exhaled as carbon dioxide. (A2878, A2879, L1892, L962)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: While Bronopol is not in itself a nitrosating agent, under conditions where it decomposes (alkaline solution and/or elevated temperatures) it can liberate nitrite and low levels of formaldehyde. These decomposition products can react with any secondary amines or amides (which may contaminate cosmetic products) to produce significant levels of nitrosamines, which are believed to be carcinogenic. Once in the body, nitrosamines are activated by cytochrome P-450 enzymes. They are then believed to induce their carcinogenic effects by forming DNA adducts at the N- and O-atoms. Formaldehyde itself is also carcinogenic. It is likely that formaldehyde toxicity occurs when intracellular levels saturate formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, allowing the unmetabolized intact molecule to exert its effects. Formaldehyde is known to form cross links between protein and DNA and undergo metabolic incorporation into macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins). (L962, L643, L1889, A2878, A2879, A2880, A2881, L1893) | Bronopol can decompose and liberate nitrite and low levels of formaldehyde. These decomposition products can react with any secondary amines or amides to produce significant levels of nitrosamines. Nitrosamines are believed to induce their carcinogenic effects by forming DNA adducts at the N- and O-atoms. Formaldehyde is also known to form cross links between protein and DNA and undergo metabolic incorporation into macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins). (L962, L1890, A2880)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Bronopol is used as a preservative in pharmaceuticals, as well as numerous consumer products such as shampoos and cosmetics. It is also used as an antimicrobial in many industrial environments such as paper mills, oil exploration and production facilities, as well as cooling water disinfection plants. (L643)

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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