Known Human Carcinogen
This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.
Metabolic Interference or Disruption
Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.
Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.
Exposure Produces Health Symptoms
Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
These attributes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. See link to Data Sources below. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.
- CATEGORIES: Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Natural Toxin | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
- SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds | Transition Metal Salts | | Transition Metal Oxides
- SYNONYMS: Ni(OH)2 | Nickel dihydroxide | Nickel hydroxide (amorphous) | Nickel hydroxide(ous) | Nickel(II) hydroxide | Nickelous hydroxide
- DESCRIPTION: Nickel hydroxide is a hydroxide of nickel. It occurs naturally as the mineral theophrastite, which is very rare. Nickel hydroxide is used in rechargeable battery electrodes. Nickel is a chemical compound with the atomic number 28. It is found abundantly in nature in laterite ore minerals, such as limonite, garnierite, and pentlandite. Nickel has a biological role and is found in certain enzymes, including urease, hydrogenase, methylcoenzyme M reductase, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. (L40, L41, L44)
From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia:
| | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.
The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
- FORMULA: H2NiO2
- DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | OEHHA | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
- LAST UPDATE: 28/04/2018
Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance
- SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of nickel poisoning include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, irritability, and difficulty sleeping, followed by chest pains, sweating, rapid heart beat, and a dry cough. (L42)
- POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: The most common harmful health effect of nickel in humans is an allergic reaction. This usually manifests as a skin rash, although some people experience asthma attacks. Long term inhahation of nickel causes chronic bronchitis and reduced lung function, as well as damage to the naval cavity. Ingestion of excess nickel results in damage to the stomach, blood, liver, kidneys, and immune system, as well as having adverse effects on reproduction and development. (L41) | Nickel is absorbed mainly through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Once in the body it enters the bloodstream, where it binds to albumin, L-histidine, and _2-macroglobulin. Nickel tends to accumulate in the lungs, thyroid, kidney, heart, and liver. Absorbed nickel is excreted in the urine, wherease unabsorbed nickel is excreted in the faeces. (L41)
- ACTION OF TOXIN: Nickel is known to substitute for other essential elements in certain enzmes, such as calcineurin. It is genotoxic, and some nickel compounds have been shown to promote cell proliferation. Nickel has a high affinity for chromatin proteins, particularly histones and protamines. The complexing of nickel ions with heterochromatin results in a number of alterations including condensation, DNA hypermethylation, gene silencing, and inhibition of histone acetylation, which have been shown to disturb gene expression. Nickel has also been shown to alter several transcription factors, including hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, activating transcription factor, and NF-KB transcription factor. There is also evidence that nickel ions inhibit DNA repair, either by directly inhibiting DNA repair enzymes or competing with zinc ions for binding to zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, resulting in structural changes in DNA that prevent repair enzymes from binding. Nickel ions can also complex with a number of cellular ligands including amino acids, peptides, and proteins resulting in the generation of oxygen radicals, which induce base damage, DNA strand breaks, and DNA protein crosslinks. (L41, A40) | Nickel has a high affinity for chromatin proteins, particularly histones and protamines. The complexing of nickel ions with heterochromatin results in a number of alterations including condensation, DNA hypermethylation, gene silencing, and inhibition of histone acetylation, which have been shown to disturb gene expression. (L41)
- TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
- Additional Exposure Routes: Nickel hydroxide is used in rechargeable battery electrodes. (L44)
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