Toxin Profiles

Substance Name

Nickel
Identification Number: CASRN | 7440-02-0

  Nastiness Attributes


  • Known Human Carcinogen

    This is a serious nasty substance. Exposure to this substance leads to cancer in Humans. Exercise extreme caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and very seriously consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Carcinogenic Properties

    Accumulating evidence points to cancer potential. Exercise caution with this substance, explore your exposure routes and consider complete avoidance. See further details under Toxins.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.


  • CATEGORIES: Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Homogeneous Metal Compounds | Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds | | Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
  • SYNONYMS: Metallic Nickel | Ni(2+) | Ni2+ | Nickel ion | Nickel(2+) | Nickel(2+) ion | Nickel(II) | Nickel(II) cation | Nickel(II) ion
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Nickel is a solid, silver-white, hard, malleable transition metal with an atomic number of 28. It resists corrosion even at high temperatures. It is present in many alloys in widespread use, including stainless steels. It may also be present as an impurity in any alloy. Nickel is used in the production of coins, jewellery, and nickel-cadmium batteries, and as a catalyst for the hydrogenation of liquid oils to solid fats such as oleomargarine and vegetable shortening. Nickel-containing dental alloys continue to be used successfully in the provision of various forms of dental care. Many of these alloys have applications in the construction of restorations designed to remain in clinical service for many years, including crowns, fixed bridgework, and removable partial dentures. Furthermore, nickel containing alloys find extensive application in orthodontics, including metallic brackets, arch wires, bands, springs and ligature wires. Many instruments and devises, for example, endodontic instruments also contain nickel. Allergic responses are mediated through the immune system. In a sensitized individual, allergic responses can be initiated by relatively small amounts of the allergen; for example, if nickel ions are released from a nickel plated material following direct and prolonged contact with the skin. Individuals are first sensitized to the allergen. Subsequent exposures, if sufficiently high, may then result in an allergic reaction. A number of allergens are used in the clinical practice of dentistry, notably eugenol, mercury, nickel, chromium, cobalt, components of resin-based materials and a host of other chemical agents. The majority of dental allergies, including allergic responses to nickel-containing dental alloys, comprise Type IV hypersensitivity reactions, cell-mediated by T-lymphocytes. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body.(A7688, A7689).
  • COMMENTS: From Safe Work Australia and the Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) in Australia: Suspected of causing cancer. Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. May cause an allergic skin reaction | Chronic Health Hazard General Health Hazard | A Hazardous Substance that may be found in the Australian Workplace. Check with your employer or health and safety officer. Stay informed and become aware of the dangers that surround you. This chemical is included on the list of recognised hazardous chemicals from the Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) that is based on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations are the basis for hazardous chemicals regulations in Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia. Under the model WHS Regulations, manufacturers and importers of substances, mixtures and articles supplied for use in workplaces are required to determine whether they are hazardous to health and safety before supply. The model WHS Regulations mandate that the hazards of a chemical as determined by the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) must be included in safety data sheets and on labels. There are transitional arrangements in place for moving to the GHS-based system.The GHS Hazardous Chemical Information List contains chemicals classified by an authoritative source (such as the European Commission or NICNAS) in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (the GHS). This list contains the vast majority of chemicals currently in HSIS. This list and its detail are regularly updated by Work Safe Australia. The model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations require chemicals to be classified in accordance with the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However transitional arrangements allow use of classification information in HSIS derived from the Approved Criteria until the 31 December 2016.
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: Ni
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | IARC | NTP | OEHHA | EPA in USA | EAFUS | Safe Work Australia - Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS)
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of nickel poisoning include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, irritability, and difficulty sleeping, followed by chest pains, sweating, rapid heart beat, and a dry cough. (L42)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: The most common harmful health effect of nickel in humans is an allergic reaction. This usually manifests as a skin rash, although some people experience asthma attacks. Long term inhahation of nickel causes chronic bronchitis and reduced lung function, as well as damage to the naval cavity. Ingestion of excess nickel results in damage to the stomach, blood, liver, kidneys, and immune system, as well as having adverse effects on reproduction and development. (L41) | Nickel is absorbed mainly through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Once in the body it enters the bloodstream, where it binds to albumin, L-histidine, and α2-macroglobulin. Nickel tends to accumulate in the lungs, thyroid, kidney, heart, and liver. Absorbed nickel is excreted in the urine, whereas unabsorbed nickel is excreted in the faeces. (L41)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Nickel is known to substitute for other essential elements in certain enzmes, such as calcineurin. It is genotoxic, and some nickel compounds have been shown to promote cell proliferation. Nickel has a high affinity for chromatin proteins, particularly histones and protamines. The complexing of nickel ions with heterochromatin results in a number of alterations including condensation, DNA hypermethylation, gene silencing, and inhibition of histone acetylation, which have been shown to disturb gene expression. Nickel has also been shown to alter several transcription factors, including hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, activating transcription factor, and NF-KB transcription factor. There is also evidence that nickel ions inhibit DNA repair, either by directly inhibiting DNA repair enzymes or competing with zinc ions for binding to zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, resulting in structural changes in DNA that prevent repair enzymes from binding. Nickel ions can also complex with a number of cellular ligands including amino acids, peptides, and proteins resulting in the generation of oxygen radicals, which induce base damage, DNA strand breaks, and DNA protein crosslinks. (L41, A40) | Nickel is known to substitute for other essential elements in certain enzmes, such as calcineurin. (A40)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Pure nickel is mainly used to make alloys, which are found in items such as coins, jewelry, valves and heat exchangers. Nickel compounds are used for nickel plating, to color ceramics, to make some batteries, and as catalysts. (L41)

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  Exposure Routes

These are the Exposure Routes we have so far for this substance. There are almost certainly more. We update this section regularly. The number of chemicals with 2 or more nastiness attributes in an exposure route is shown in orange. They grey badge shows the total amount of chemicals within the exposure route.


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