Toxin Profiles

Substance Name

Manganese
Identification Number: CASRN | 7439-96-5

  Nastiness Attributes


  • Reproductive Effects

    Interferes with fertility

  • Birth/Developmental

    Known to effect development of fetus.

  • Metabolic Interference or Disruption

    Interferes with human metabolism. This can be a very serious thing. Some of these interference mechanics are well established. However, often long term effects and health consequences remain largely unknown. Additionally an emerging area of concern and one that is not currently studied, is the combined synergistic effects these metabolically disrupting chemicals have on human health.

    Metabolic interference happens when the substance produces highly reactive and often damaging intermediates during detoxification or when the substance binds to specific enzymes, important structural groups on molecules, receptors and membranes or targets DNA or mimics key nutrients.

  • Exposure Produces Health Symptoms

    Symptoms maybe short term or long term depending on the exposure duration and intensity and effects areas like Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Cognition, Fatigue. A substance with this attribute may cause an allergic skin reaction, serious eye irritation, allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.

  • Toxic to specific organs

    Can damage liver, kidney, lungs, heart or gut. Ironically liver, kidneys and gut are the main detoxifications systems.


  • CATEGORIES: Pit Chemicals | Chemicals detected in flowback and produced water - collectively referred to as - hydraulic fracturing wastewater | Household Toxin | Industrial/Workplace Toxin | Pollutant | Airborne Pollutant | Food Toxin | Natural Toxin | Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances
  • SUBSTANCE LINEAGE: Inorganic Compounds | Homogeneous Metal Compounds | Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds | | Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
  • SYNONYMS: Magnanese(2+) | Manganese ion | Manganese(2+) ion | Manganese(II) | Manganese(II) cation | Manganese(II) ion | Metallic manganese | Mn(2+) | Mn2+
  • DESCRIPTION: Has been used in CSG, Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (Fracking) as - Unknown | Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. Physiologically, it. exists as an ion in the body. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver.
  • COMMENTS:
  • toxin chemical structure pubchem
  • FORMULA: Mn
  • DATA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES: ARTICLE 4 | T3DB | PubChem | TEDX | EPA in USA | FDA Indirect Food Additives
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

  Health Associations

Mostly focused on Health Implications of Long Term Exposure to this substance

  • SYMPTOMS: Manganese mainly affects the nervous system and may cause behavioral changes and other nervous system effects, which include movements that may become slow and clumsy. This combination of symptoms when sufficiently severe is referred to as “manganism”. (L228)
  • POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES: Manganese mainly affects the nervous system and may cause behavioral changes and other nervous system effects, which include movements that may become slow and clumsy. This combination of symptoms when sufficiently severe is referred to as “manganism”. High levels of manganese may also cause damage to the reproductive system. (L228) | Manganese is mainly absorbed via ingestion, but can also be inhaled. It binds to alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, or transferrin in the plasma and is distributed to the brain and all other mammalian tissues, though it tends to accumulate more in the liver, pancreas, and kidney. Manganese exists in a number of oxidation states and is believed to undergo changes in oxidation state within the body. Manganese oxidation state can influence tissue toxicokinetic behavior, and possibly toxicity. Manganese is excreted primarily in the faeces. (L228)
  • ACTION OF TOXIN: Manganese is a cellular toxicant that can impair transport systems, enzyme activities, and receptor functions. It primarily targets the central nervous system, particularily the globus pallidus of the basal ganglia. It is believed that the manganese ion, Mn(II), enhances the autoxidation or turnover of various intracellular catecholamines, leading to increased production of free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and other cytotoxic metabolites, along with a depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to oxidative damage and selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons. In addition to dopamine, manganese is thought to interact with other neurotransmitters, such as GABA and glutamate. Manganese overwhelms the manganese superoxide dismutase and produce oxidative damage. The neurotoxicity of Mn(II) has also been linked to its ability to substitute for Ca(II) under physiological conditions. It can enter mitochondria via the calcium uniporter and inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. It may also inhibit the efflux of Ca(II), which can result in a loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Mn(II) has been shown to inhibit mitochondrial aconitase activity to a significant level, altering amino acid metabolism and cellular iron homeostasis. (L228) | Manganese binds to the prion protein, altering its conformation, displacing copper, and altering the redox chemistry of the metal-protein complex. These changes are similar to those associated with prion disease. (A158)
  • TOXIN SITES OF ACTION IN CELL: "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
  • Additional Exposure Routes: Manganese is used principally in steel production to improve hardness, stiffness, and strength. It may also be used as an additive in gasoline to improve the octane rating of the gas. Manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. (L228, L229)

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  Exposure Routes

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