Known Human Carcinogen List

To classify a substance as causing or be associated with cancer is a serious matter. Significant global efforts by scientists have been conducted into cancer research over the last decades. Government resources have been developed to compile this data so as to help prioritise the more toxic carcinogenic substances we may be significantly exposed to.

For a substance to be classified as Human Carcinogen on toxno it must be defined by the IARC as category 1, 2A and 2B; by the NTP as "known or anticipated to cause cancer"; rated by the EPA_IRIS program in categories A, B1, B2 or C; classified by the OEHHA as "known to the state to cause cancer". See our References and Toxin Profiles and a list of Chemicals with Carcinogenic Proporties for more details. Importantly this list is not exclusive. Many others exist that we are just learning about. Stay informed by signing up on any of our toxin profile pages.

This is a Long List. If looking for a particular chemical you can use the find function on your keyboard while on this page or our site search feature at top right of every page.


KEY: Nasty Attributes 7

Exposure Routes 1

Description Available i

Health Information Available +


1 - [(5 - Nitrofurfurylidene)amino] - 2 - imidazolidinone1 1 - Amino - 2 - methylanthraquinone1 1 - Amino - 2,4 - dibromoanthraquinone1 1 - Chloro - 2 - methylpropene1 1 - Hydroxyanthraquinone1 1 - Naphthylamine1 1 - Nitropyrene1 1-Bromopropane+i2 1-Methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-aminei1 1,1 - Dimethylhydrazine1 1,1-Dichloroethane+i1 1,1-Dichloroethene+i2 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane1 1,1,2-Trichloroethane+i2 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane+i1 1,1'-Biphenyl, chloro derivs.31 1,2 - Diethylhydrazine1 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxidei42 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide, sodium salt162 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane+i2 1,2-Dibromoethane+i2 1,2-Dichloroethane+i1 1,2-Dichloropropane1 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine+i1 1,2-Epoxybutane (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 1,2,3 - Trichloropropane1 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin+i1 1,2:3,4-Diepoxybutane (see Monographs on 1,3- Butadiene)1 1,3 - Dichloro - 2 - propanol1 1,3 - Dichloropropene (technical - grade)i1 1,3 - Dinitropyrene1 1,3-Butadiene+i2 1,3-Propane sultone (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supp orting evidence from other relevant data)1 1,4-Dichloro-2-butene1 1,4-Dichlorobenzene+i52 1,4-Dioxane+i125 1,6 - Dinitropyrene1 1,8 - Dinitropyrene1 2 - (2 - Formylhydrazino) - 4 - (5 - nitro - 2 - furyl)thiazole1 2 - Amino - 5 - (5 - nitro - 2 - furyl) - 1,3,4 - thiadiazole1 2 - Aminoanthraquinone1 2 - Methyl - 1 - nitroanthraquinone (uncertain purity)1 2 - Methylaziridine (Propyleneimine)1 2 - Methylimida zole1 2 - Nitroanisole1 2 - Nitrofluorene1 2 - Nitropropane1 2-Acetylaminofluorene1 2-Aminofluorene1 2-Aminonaphthalenei1 2-Biphenyloli32 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene12 2-Nitrotoluene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 2,2 - Bis(bromomethyl)propane - 1,3 - diol1 2,2',3,3'-Tetrabromobiphenyl+1 2,2',3,3',4-Pentabromobiphenyl+1 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabromobiphenyl+i1 2,2',3,4,5,6-Hexabromobiphenyl+1 2,2',3,6-Tetrabromobiphenyl+1 2,3 - Dibromopropan - 1 - ol1 2,3-epoxypropyl phenyl ether23 2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodecane1 2,3,4,6,7,8,11-Heptachlorotridecane1 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran+i1 2,3,6,9-Tetrachlorodecane1 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin+i2 2,4 - Diaminoanisole1 2,4 - Hexadienal1 2,4-/2,6-Dinitrotoluene mixture1 2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate1 2,4-Dinitrotoluene+i23 2,4-Hexadienal (89% trans, trans isomer; 11% cis, trans isomer)1 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate+i1 2,4-Toluenediaminei1 2,4,5-Trimethylaniline and its strong acid salts1 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol+i1 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene+i2 2,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, dipropyl esteri21 2,6-Dimethyl-N-nitrosomorpholine (DMNM)1 2,6-Dimethylanilinei1 2,6-Dinitrotoluene+i2 2,6-Toluene diisocyanate+i1 3 - ( N - Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile1 3 - Chloro - 2 - methylpropene1 3 - Chloro - 4 - (dichloromethyl) - 5 - hydroxy - 2( 5H ) - furanone1 3 - Monochloro - 1,2 - propanediol1 3 - Nitrobenzanthrone1 3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole hydrochloride1 3-Methylcholanthrene1 3,3' - Dichloro - 4,4' - diaminodiphenyl ether1 3,3' - Dimethoxybenzidine ( ortho - Dianisidine)1 3,3' - Dimethylbenzidine ( ortho - Tolidine)1 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine+i1 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride1 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride1 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine1 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine-based dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine1 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachloroazobenzene1 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl+i1 3,7 - Dinitrofluoranthene1 3,9 - Dinitrofluoranthene1 4 - Amino - 2 - nitrophenol1 4 - Chloro - ortho - phenylenediamine1 4 - Chloro - ortho - toluidine1 4 - Methylimidazole1 4 - Nitrobiphenyl1 4 - Nitropyrene1 4 - Vinylcyclohexene1 4 - Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide2 4-Aminobiphenyl+i1 4-methylpentan-2-onei112 4, 4' - Thiodianiline1 4,4' - Diaminodiphenyl ether1 4,4' - Methylene bis(2 - methylaniline)1 4,4'-bi-o-toluidine dihydrochloride12 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)i1 4,4'-Methylenedianilinei1 4,4'-Methylenedianiline dihydrochloride1 5 - Methylchrysene1 5 - Nitro - ortho - anisidine1 5 - Nitroacenaphthene1 5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)-amino]-2-oxazolidinone1 5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino ]-2- oxazolidinone1 5-Chloro-o-toluidine and its strong acid salts1 5-Methoxypsoralen (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 6 - Nitrochrysene1 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracenei1 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazolei1 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium chloridei12 A - alpha - C (2 - Amino - 9 H - pyrido[2,3 - b ]indole)1 Acephate+i31 Acetaldehyde+i82 Acetamidei1 Acetochlor+i1 Acheson process, occupational exposure1 Acid mists, strong inorganic1 Acifluorfen sodium1 acrylamide+i29 Acrylonitrile+i22 Actinomycin D2 AF - 2 [2 - (2 - Furyl) - 3 - (5 - nitro - 2 - furyl)acrylamide]1 Aflatoxin M1+i1 Aflatoxins1 Alachlor+i1 Alcoholic Beverage Consumption1 Alcoholic beverages1 Alcoholic beverages, when associated with alcohol abuse1 Aldrin+i2 Allyl chloride1 Aloe vera , whole leaf extract1 alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures)i7 alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane+i1 Aluminium production1 Amitrole (NB: Overall evaluation downgraded to Group 3 with supp orting evidence from other relevant data)1 Amosite asbestos+i1 Amsacrine+i1 Analgesic mixtures containing Phenacetin1 Analgesic Mixtures Containing Phenacetin (see Phenacetin and Analgesic Mixtures containing Phenacetin)1 Androgenic (anabolic) steroid s1 Androstenedione+i1 Aniline+i8 Aniline hydrochloride1 Anthraquinone1 Antimony trioxide+i11 Aramite®1 Areca nut1 Aristolochic acidi1 Aristolochic Acids1 Arsenic+i114 Arsenic (inorganic arsenic compounds)1 Arsenic Compounds, Inorganic 1 Art glass, glass containers and pressed ware (manufacture of)1 Asbestos 11 Asbestos 21 Asbestos 31 Asbestos 41 Auramine1 Auramine production1 Azacitidine+i1 Azaserine1 Azathioprinei2 Aziridine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Azobenzene1 barium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]toluene-4-sulphonate]12 Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl+i1 Benz[ j ]aceanthrylene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting mechanistic and other relevant data)1 benzal chloride1 Benzene+i97 Benzidinei1 Benzidine-based dyes1 Benzidine, dyes metabolized to (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 1 based on mechanistic and other relevant data)1 Benzo[ c ]phenanthrene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Benzo[a]anthracene+i11 Benzo[a]pyrene+i17 Benzo[b]fluoranthene+i11 Benzo[j]fluoranthene+i1 Benzo[k]fluoranthene+i11 Benzofuran1 Benzophenone+i71 Benzotrichloride1 Benzoyl chloride1 Benzyl butyl phthalate+i83 Benzyl violet 4B1 Beryllium+i1 Beryllium Compounds (see Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds)1 beta - Butyrolactone1 beta - Propiolactone1 beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane+i1 Betel quid with tobacco1 Betel quid without tobacco1 Biomass fuel (primarily wood), indoor emissions from household combustion of1 Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether, technical grade1 Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether+i2 Bis(chloromethyl)ether; chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)1 Bitumens, occupational exposure to hard bitumens and their emissions during mastic asphalt work1 Bitumens, occupational exposure to oxidized bitumens and their emissions during roofing1 Bitumens, occupational exposure to straight-run bitumens and their emissions during road paving 11 Bitumens, occupational exposure to straight-run bitumens and their emissions during road paving 21 Bitumens, extracts of steam-refined and air refined1 BK polyomavirus (BKV)1 Bleomycin+i1 Bracken fern1 Bromate1 Bromochloroacetic acid1 Bromodichloromethanei1 Bromoethane+i2 Bromoform+i2 Busulfan+i2 Butylated hydroxyanisolei112 C.I. Direct Blue 2181 Cadmium+i97 Cadmium and cadmium compounds1 Cadmium Compounds (see Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds)1 Caffeic acidi1 Captafoli1 Captani22 Carbaril+i53 Carbazole1 Carbon blacki434 Carbon electrode manufacture1 Carbon nanotubes, multi - walled MWCNT - 72 Carbon nanotubes, single - walled2 Carbon tetrachloride+i12 Carbon-black extracts1 Carmustinei2 Carpentry and joinery1 Carrageenan, degraded (Poligeenan)1 Ceramic fibers (airborne particles of respirable size)1 Ceramic Fibers (Respirable Size)1 Certain combined chemotherapy for lymphomas1 Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)1 Chloral1 Chloral hydrate1 Chlorambucili2 Chloramphenicol+i1 Chloramphenicol sodium succinate1 Chlorbenzylate+i2 Chlordane+i1 Chlordane (Technical)1 Chlordecone+i2 Chlordimeform1 Chlorendic acid1 Chlorinated paraffins of average carbon chain length C12 and average degree of chlorination approximately 60%1 Chlorinated paraffins (Average chain length, C12;approximately 60 percent chlorine by weight)1 Chlornaphazine1 Chloroethane+i2 Chloroform+i2 Chloromethyl methyl etheri1 Chloronitrobenzenes 12 Chloronitrobenzenes 22 Chloronitrobenzenes 32 Chlorophenoxy herbicides1 Chlorothalonil+i22 Chlorotrianisene1 Chlorozotocin (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Chromium (hexavalent compounds)2 Chrysene+i21 Chrysotile asbestos+i1 CI Acid Red 1141 CI Basic Red 91 CI Direct Black 38 (see Benzidine, dyes metabolized to)1 CI Direct Blue 151 CI Direct Blue 6 (see Benzidine, dyes metabolized to)1 CI Direct Brown 95 (see Benzidine, dyes metabolized to)1 Ciclosporin (Cyclosporin A; Cyclosporine)1 Cidofovir2 Cinnamyl anthranilate1 Cisplatini1 Citrus Red No. 21 Clofenotane+i2 Clofentezinei1 Clofibratei2 Clomiphene citrate2 Clonorchis sinensis (infection with)1 Coal - tar distillation, Coal Tar (see Coal Tars and Coal-Tar Pitches) 1 Coal gasification1 Coal-tar pitch1 Coal-Tar Pitches (see Coal Tars and Coal-Tar Pitches)1 Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion of1 Cobalt+i52 Cobalt sulfate+i1 Cobalt sulfate a nd other soluble cobalt(II) salts1 Cobalt-Tungsten Carbide: Powders and Hard Metals1 Cobalt(II) oxide+i31 Coconut oil diethanolamine condensatei1 Coffee (urinary bladder) (NB: There is some evidence of an inverse relationship between coffee drinking and cancer of the large bowel; coffee drinking could not be classified as to its carcinogenicity to other organs)1 Coke Oven Emissions1 Coke production1 Conjugated estrogens2 Creosotes1 Crocidolite Asbestos+i1 Crotonaldehyde 12 Crotonaldehyde 2i2 Cupferron1 Cycasin1 Cyclopenta[ cd ]pyrene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from ot her relevant data)1 Cyclophosphamide+i2 Cyclophosphamide monohydrate2 Cyclosporin +i1 Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine+i1 Cytembena1 D&C Orange No. 171 D&C Red No. 81 Dacarbazinei2 Daminozidei1 Dantron (Chrysazin; 1,8 - Dihydroxyanthraquinone)1 Daunorubicin+i1 Di(2 - ethylhexyl) adipate1 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate+i23 Diaminotoluene (mixed)1 Diazoaminobenzene1 Dibenz[ a,h ]acridine1 Dibenz[ a,j ]acridine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Dibenz[ c,h ]acridine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Dibenzo[ a,e ]pyrene1 Dibenzo[ a,i ]pyrene1 Dibenzo[ a,l ]pyrene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene+i12 Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene1 Dibromoacetic acid1 Dibromoacetonitrilei7 Dibromochloromethanei2 Dichloroacetic Acidi2 Dichlorvos+i12 Diclofop-methyli2 Dieldrin+i2 Dienestrol Delisted January 4, 2013 [Click here for the basis for delisting]1 Diesel engine exhaust1 Diesel Exhaust Particulates1 Diesel fuel, marine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Diethanolaminei119 Diethyl sulfate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Diethylstilbestrol+i2 Diglycidyl resorcinol ether1 Digoxin+i1 Dihydrosafrole1 Diisononyl phthalate (DINP)1 Diisopropyl sulfate1 Dimethipin1 Dimethyl sulfate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Dimethylars i nic acid1 Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with suppor ting evidence from other relevant data)1 Dinitrotoluene mixture, 2,4-/2,6-1 Diphenylhydantoin (Phenytoin), sodium salt1 Disperse Blue 11 Disperse Yellow 31 Diuroni11 Doxorubicin+i1 Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin)2 Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (see Adriamycin)1 Dry cleaning (occupational exposures in)1 Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (see 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine and Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine)1 Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (see 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine and Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine )1 Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine (see Benzidine and Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine)1 Emissions from combustion of coal1 Emissions from high-temperature unrefined rapeseed oil1 Engine exhaust, diesel1 Engine exhaust, gasoli ne1 Enilconazolei1 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (see Tobacco-Related Exposures)1 Epichlorohydrin (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)i2 Epoxiconazole1 Epstein - Barr virus1 Erionite11 Estradiol+i1 Estragole1 Estrogen - progestogen menopausal therapy (combined)1 Estrogen therapy, postmenopausal1 Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (combined) (NB: There is also convincing evidence in humans that these agents confer a protective effect against cancer in the endometrium and ovary)1 Estrogen-progestogen (combined) used as menopausal therapy1 Estrogens, Steroidal1 Estrone+i1 Estropipate 2 Ethanol+i1169 Ethenyl acetate+i132 Ethinyl Estradiol+i1 Ethoprop+i1 Ethyl acrylate+i22 Ethyl carbamate+i2 Ethyl methanesulfonate1 Ethylbenzene+i298 ETHYLENE OXIDEi129 Ethylenethioureai3 Etoposide+i2 Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin1 Etridiazolei1 Fenoxycarb+i1 Firefighter (occupational exposure as a)1 Firemaster BP-611 Fluoro - edenite fibrous amphibole1 Folpeti22 Fomesafen1 Formaldehyde+i238 Fosetyl-al1 Frying, emissions from high - temperature1 Fuel oils, residual (heavy)1 Fumonisin B1+i1 Furani1 Furazolidone1 Furmecyclox1 Fusarin C1 Gallium arsenide+i2 gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane +i1 Ganciclovir2 Gasoline (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Gasoline engine exhaust (condensates/extracts)1 Gemfibrozil+i3 Ginkgo biloba extract1 Glass wool fibers (inhalable and biopersistent)1 Glu - P - 2 (2 - Aminodipyrido[1,2 - a :3',2' - d ]imidazole)1 Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2- a :3',2'- d ]imidazole)1 Glycidaldehyde1 Glycidoli1 Glycine, N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:3:1)i12 Goldenseal root powder1 Griseofulvin+i1 Gyromitrin+i2 Haematite mining (underground)1 Hairdresser or barber (occupational exposure as a)1 HC Blue No. 11 Helicobacter pylori (infection with)1 Hepatitis B Virus1 Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with)1 Hepatitis C Virus1 Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with)1 Heptachlor+i2 Heptachlor epoxide+i1 Herbal remedies containing plant species of the genus Aristolochia1 Hexabromobiphenyl (under Polybrominated Biphenyls)1 Hexachlorobenzene+i2 Hexachlorobutadiene+i2 Hexachlorocyclohexane (technical grade)1 Hexachlorocyclohexane (Technical Grade) (see Lindane, Hexachlorocyclohexane [Technical Grade], and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers) 1 Hexachlorocyclohexane, technical Grade+i1 Hexachlorocyclohexanes1 Hexachlorodibenzodioxin1 Hexachloroethane1 Hexamethylphosphoramide2 Hexavalent chromium +i11 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (infection with)1 Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (infection with)1 Human papillomavirus type 681 Human papillomavirus types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 (NB: The HPV types that have been classified as carcinogenic to humans can differ by an order of magnitude in risk for cervical cancer)1 Human papillomavirus types 26, 53, 66, 67, 70, 73, 821 Human papillomavirus types 30, 34, 69, 85, 97 (NB: Classified by phylogenetic analogy to the HPV genus alpha types classified in Group 1)1 Human papillomavirus types 5 and 8 (in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis)1 Human Papillomaviruses: Some Genital Mucosal Type1 Human T - cell lymphotropic virus type I1 Hydrazine+i1 Hydrazine sulfate1 Hydrochlorothiazide+i1 Hydroxytriphenylstannane+i2 Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+i11 Indium phosphide+i1 Ionizing radiation (all types)1 Iprodionei1 Iprovalicarb1 Iprovalicarb 21 IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5- f ]quinoline) (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Iron - dextran complex1 Iron and steel founding (occupational exposure during)1 Isobutyl nitrite1 Isophorone1 Isoprenei1 Isopropyl alcohol manufacture using strong acids1 Isopropylbenzene+i47 Isopyrazam1 Isosafrole1 Isoxabeni11 Isoxaflutolei1 JC polyomavirus (JCV)1 Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus1 Kava extract1 Kresoxim-methyl1 Lactofeni1 Lasiocarpinei1 Lead+i244 Lead acetate+i1 Lead and lead compounds1 Lead Compounds (see Lead and Lead Compounds)1 Lead compounds, inorganic1 Lead phosphate+i1 Lead subacetate+i1 Leather dust1 Lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers1 Linuroni2 Lomustinei2 Lynestrenol1 m-Cresol+i8 Magenta1 Magenta production1 Magnetic fields, extr emely low - frequency1 Malaria (caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum in holoendemic areas)1 Malonaldehyde, sodium salt1 Mancozebi1 Mancozeb 21 Manebi2 Marijuana smoke1 Mate, hot1 MeA - alpha - C (2 - Amino - 3 - methyl - 9 H - pyrido[2,3 - b ]indole)1 Mechlorethaminei2 Medroxyprogesterone Acetate+i2 Megestrol acetate2 MeIQ (2 - Amino - 3,4 - dimethylimidazo[4,5 - f ]quinoline)1 MeIQx (2 - Amino - 3,8 - dimethylimidazo[4,5 - f ]quinoxaline)1 Melphalan+i2 Mepanipyrim1 Mercuric chloride+i1 Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)1 Merphalan1 Mestranoli1 Metam potassium1 Metham sodium2 Methidathion+i1 Methoxsalen+i1 Methoxsalen with Ultraviolet A Therapy1 Methyl carbamate1 Methyl iodide1 Methyl methanesulfonate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Methylarsonic acid1 Methylazoxymethan ol acetate1 Methylazoxymethanol1 METHYLENE CHLORIDEi78 Methyleugenoli1 Methylhydrazine and its salts1 Methylmercury+i1 Methylmercury compounds (NB: Evaluated as a group)1 Methylmercury compounds1 Methylthiouracil1 Metiram2 Metolachlor+i1 Metronidazole+i12 Michler's base [4,4 ′ -methylenebis( N , N -dimethyl)- benzenamine]1 Michler's ketone [4,4 ′ - Bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone]1 Microcystin-LR+i1 Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated1 Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated1 Mirexi1 Mitomycini1 Mitoxantrone+i1 MON 13900 (furilazole)1 MON 4660 (dichloroacetyl-1-oxa-4-azaspiro(4,5)-decane1 Monocrotaline1 MOPP (vincristine-prednisone-nitrogen mustard-procarbazine mixture)1 MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents1 N - [4 - (5 - Nitro - 2 - furyl) - 2 - thiazolyl]acetamide1 N - Methyl - N - nitrosourethane1 N - Nitrosodi - n - butylamine1 N - Nitrosodiethanolamine1 N - Nitrosodiphenylaminei1 N - Nitrosomethylethylamine1 N - Nitrosomethylvinylamine1 N - Nitrosomorpholine1 N - Nitrosopiperidine1 N - Nitrosopyrrolidine1 N - Nitrososarcosine1 N -Ethyl- N -nitrosourea (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 N -Methyl- N ´-nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from ot her relevant data)1 N -Methyl- N -nitrosourea (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 N -Nitrosodiethylamine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporti ng evidence from other relevant data)1 N , N' - Diacetylbenzidine1 N-Carboxymethyl-N-nitrosourea1 N-Methylolacrylamide1 n-Nitrosodi-n-propylaminei1 N-Nitrosodimethylaminei1 N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine31 N' -Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-( N - Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 1 based on mechanistic and other relevant data)1 N'-nitrosonornicotinei1 Nafenopin1 Nalidixic acid1 Naphthalene+i127 Neutron radiation (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 1 with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Neutrons (see Ionizing Radiation)1 Nickel+i131 Nickel acetate+i1 Nickel carbonate+i1 Nickel compounds1 Nickel Compounds (see Nickel Compounds and Metallic Nickel )1 Nickel hydroxide+i81 Nickel oxide+i1 Nickel refinery dust1 Nickel refinery dust from the pyrometallurgical process1 Nickel subsulfide+i1 Nickel tetracarbonyl+i2 Nickelocene+i1 Niridazole1 Nitrapyrini2 Nitrate or nitrite (ingested) under conditions that result in endoge nous nitrosation1 Nitrilotriacetic Acidi52 Nitrobenzenei2 Nitrofen (technical - grade)1 Nitrofural+i2 Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride (Mechlorethamine hydrochloride)2 Nitrogen mustard N - oxide1 Nitrogen mustard N-oxide hydrochloride1 nitromethane1 Non-arsenical insecticides (occupational exposures in spraying and application of)1 Norethindronei2 Norethynodrel1 o-Anisidine hydrochloride1 o-Cresol+i1 o-Phenylenediamine and its salts1 O-Toluidinei1 o-Toluidine hydrochloride1 Ochratoxin A+i1 Octabromobiphenyl (under Polybrominated Biphenyls)1 Oil Orange SS1 Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with)1 Oral contraceptives, combined1 Oral contraceptives, sequential1 ortho - Aminoazotoluene1 ortho - Anisidine1 Oryzalini1 Outdoor air poll ution, particulate matter in1 Outdoor air pollution1 Oxadiazoni2 Oxazepam+i2 Oxymetholone 2 Oxythioquinox (Chinomethionat)2 p-a,a,a-Tetrachlorotoluene1 p-Chloro-o-toluidine Hydrochloride (see p-Chloro-o-toluidine and Its Hydrochloride)1 p-Chloro-o-toluidine, strong acid salts of1 p-Chloroaniline hydrochloride1 p-Cresol+i8 P,P'-DDD+i1 P,P'-DDE +i2 Painter (occupational exposure as a)1 Palygorskite (Attapulgite) (long fibres, > 5 micrometres)i3 Panfuran S (containing dihydroxymethylfuratrizine)1 para - Aminoazobenzene1 para - Chloroaniline1 para - Cresidine1 para - Dimethylaminoazobenzene1 para - Nitrosodiphenylamine1 para-Toluidine Delisted October 29, 1999 [Click here for the basis for delisting]1 Paraquat dichloride+i1 Parathion+i2 Particulate matter in outdoor air pollution (see Outdoor air pollution, particulate matter in )1 Pentachlorophenol+i8 Pentachlorophenol, Sodium Salt (see Pentachlorophenol and By-products of Its Synthesis)1 Pentosan polysulfate sodium1 Pentosan polysulfate sodium1 Perfluorooctanoic acidi1 Petroleum refining (occupational exposures in)1 Phenacetini1 Phenacetin, analgesic mixtures containing1 Phenazopyridine1 phenazopyridine hydrochloride12 Phenesterin1 Phenobarbital+i1 Phenolphthaleini1 Phenoxybenzamine1 Phenoxybenzamine hydro chloride1 Phenylhydrazine and its salts1 Phenytoin+i2 Phosphorus - 32, as phosphate1 Pickled vegetables (traditional in Asia)1 Pioglitazonei1 Pirimicarb+i1 Plutonium+i1 Polybrominated biphenyls2 Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)1 Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin-like, with a Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) according to WHO (PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189) (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 1 with strong supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Polychlorinated biphenyls2 Polychlorinated biphenyls (containing 60 or more percent percent chlorine by molecular weight)1 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins1 Polychlorinated dibenzofurans1 Polychlorophenols and their sodium salts (mixed exposures)1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)1 Ponceau 3R1 Ponceau MX1 Potassium bromate+i1 Primidone1 Printing processes (occupational exposures in)1 Procarbazinei1 Procarbazine hydrochloride (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)2 Prochlorazi1 Procymidone1 Progesteronei1 Progestins1 Progestogen - only contraceptives1 Propachlor+i1 Propargitei2 Propoxur+i31 propylene glycol mono-t-butyl ether22 PROPYLENE OXIDEi22 Propylthiouracili2 Propyzamide+i1 Pulegone1 Pymetrozinei1 Pyridinei1 Pyrocatecholi1 Quartz (SiO2)i375 Quinoline+i4 Quinoline and its strong acid salts1 Radiofrequency electromagnetic fiel ds 11 Radioiodines, including iodine - 1311 Radionuclides1 Radionuclides, alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited (NB: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence in humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)1 Radionuclides, beta-particle-emitting, internally deposited (NB: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence in humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)1 Radium - 224 and its decay products1 Radium-226+i1 Radium-228+i1 Radon+i1 Refractory ceramic fibres1 Refractory ceramic fibers1 Reserpinei2 Residual (heavy) fuel oils1 Resmethrin+i22 Riddelliine1 Rubber manufacturing industry1 S,S,S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate+i1 Safrolei1 Salted fish, Chinese - style1 Salted fish, Chinese-style1 Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)1 Schistosoma japonicum (infection with)1 Selenium Sulfide+i1 Semustine [1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1- nitrosourea, Methyl - CCNU]1 Shale oils1 Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption1 Silica, crystalline (airborne particles of respirable size)1 Silica, Crystalline (Respirable Size)1 Silicon carbide whiskers1 Silicon carbide, fibrous1 Smokeless Tobacco (see Tobacco-Related Exposures)1 Sodium ortho - phenylphenate1 Solar radiation1 Solar Radiation (see Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures)1 Soot (as found in occupational exposure of chimney sweeps)1 Soots 1 Soots, tars, and mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated oils and used engine oils)1 Special-purpose fibres such as E-glass and '475' glass fibres1 Spirodiclofeni1 Spironolactone+i2 Stanozolol1 Sterigmatocystin+i1 Streptozocin+i2 Strong Inorganic Acid Mists Containing Sulfuric Acid1 Styrene+i37 Styrene-7,8-oxide (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Sudan I1 Sulfallate+i1 Sulfasalazinei2 Sulfur mustard1 Sulfuric acid+i216 Sunlamps and Sunbeds, Exposure to (see Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures)1 Surgical implants and other foreign bodies: - Polymeric implants prepared as thin smooth film (with the exception of poly(glycolic acid)) - Metallic implants prepared as thin smooth films - Implanted foreign bodies of metallic cobalt, metallic nickel and an alloy powder containing 66-67% nickel, 13 - 16% chromium and 7% iron1 Talc (Mg3H2(SiO3)4)i612 Talc containing asbestiform fibers1 Tamoxifen+i1 Teniposidei2 Testosterone+i1 Tetrachloroethylene+i57 Tetrafluoroethylene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A)1 Tetranitromethane1 Textile manufacturing industry (work in)1 Thioacetamide1 Thiodicarb+i1 Thiotepai1 Thiouracil1 Thioureai39 Thorium+i1 Thorium dioxide1 titanium dioxidei754 Titanium dioxide (airborne, unbound particles of respirable size)1 Tobacco smoke1 Tobacco smoke, second - hand1 Tobacco smoking1 Tobacco Smoking (see Tobacco-Related Exposures)1 Tobacco, oral use of smokeless products1 Tobacco, smokeless1 Toluene diisocyanates1 Toxaphene+i1 Toxins derived from Fusarium moniliforme (Fusarium verticillioides)1 trans -2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2- furyl) - vinyl] - 1,3, 4 - oxadiazole1 trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole1 Treosulfan1 Triamtere ne1 Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride)1 Trichloroacetic acidi1 trichloroethylene 143 Trichloroethylene 2+i1 Trifluralini22 Trimethyl phosphate1 Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)1 Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphatei2 Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)1 Tris(aziridinyl) - para - benzoquinone (Triaziquone)1 Trp - P - 1 (3 - Amino - 1,4 - dimethyl - 5 H - pyrido[4,3 - b ]indole)1 Trp - P - 2 (3 - Amino - 1 - meth yl - 5 H - pyrido[4,3 - b ]indole)1 Trypan blue1 Tungsten carbide with cobalt metal (see Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide)2 Ultraviolet radiation (wavelengths 100-400 nm, encompassing UVA, UVB, and UVC)1 Ultraviolet - emitting tanning devices1 Unleaded gasoline (wholly vaporized)1 Uracil mustardi2 UV Radiation A (see Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures)1 UV Radiation B (see Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures)1 UV Radiation C (see Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures)1 UV Radiation, Broad Spectrum (see Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures)1 Vanadium(V) oxide+i1 Vinclozolini2 Vinyl bromide+i1 Vinyl chloride+i1 Vinyl fluoride (NB: (1) Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic and other relevant data; (2) For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)1 Welding fumes (NB: Volume 100D concluded that there is sufficient evidence for ocular melanoma in welders)1 Wood dust1 X - and Gamma - Radiation1 X-Radiation and Gamma Radiation (see Ionizing Radiation)1 Zalcitabinei1 Zidovudine+i1 Zileuton 2 Zineb+i2 α - Methylstyrene1


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