Exposure Routes

Ways in which we can be exposed to Nasty Substances

Common to all of us is Home, Workplace, School, Travel and Leisure. These are all potential Exposure Routes to Toxic Chemicals and other Toxins that enter us via our Breathing, Skin and Gut.

Food | EAFUS


  • MAIN CATEGORY: Food
  • SUB CATEGORY: EAFUS
  • DESCRIPTION: EAFUS (Everything added to food in the United States)November 2011 This information is generated from a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) under an ongoing program known as the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA). PAFA contains administrative, chemical and toxicological information on over 2000 substances directly added to food, including substances regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as direct, "secondary" direct, and color additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) and prior-sanctioned substances. In addition, the database contains only administrative and chemical information on less than 1000 such substances. The more than 3000 total substances together comprise an inventory often referred to as "Everything" Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS).The EAFUS list of substances contains ingredients added directly to food that FDA has either approved as food additives or listed or affirmed as GRAS. Nevertheless, it contains only a partial list of all food ingredients that may in fact be lawfully added to food, because under federal law some ingredients may be added to food under a GRAS determination made independently from the FDA. The list contains many, but not all, of the substances subject to independent GRAS determinations. For information about the GRAS notification program please consult the Inventory of GRAS Notifications. Additional information on the status of Food and Color Additives can be obtained from the Food Additive Status List or the Color Additive Status List (formerly called Appendix A of the Investigations Operations Manual).
  • DATA SOURCES: Each Toxin Profile contained within this Exposure Route shows a full list of data sources.
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

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Do you have time, expertise, knowledge or just raw passion to have less toxins in your life and the world. We would love your help. The form here (excel spreadsheeet - no macros - in .xls format) is all setup ready for you to add data and email it back to us. You can help with new Chemicals, new Exposure Routes or extra Nastiness Attributes or any combination of the above.


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Sub-category Exposure Routes

This Exposure Route can also have additional subcategory routes of exposure. The number of nasty chemicals in these sub category exposure routes are shown in orange. Occassional there are no sub-categories and this section will be empty.



Toxic Substances found within this Exposure Route. There are probably more.

WARNING: This list may be VERY long for some exposure routes.

1-Proponol1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide, sodium saltPropylene glycol1,4-Dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanol, 9-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-Butanol2-butoxyethanolDimethylethanolamine2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL2-methylpropan-1-olDiethylenetriamineTriethanolamine2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol4-methylpentan-2-one5-Methyl-2-(1-Methylethyl)PhenolAcetaldehydeAcetic acidacetic anhydrideAcetoneacetophenoneAcroleinadipic acidAluminium hydroxideAluminium sulfateAluminium octadecanoateammonia, aqueous solutionammonium chlorideammonium sulphateBentonitebenzaldehydeBenzeneBenzophenoneBenzyl acetateBenzyl BenzoateD-GlucoseBiotinD-Gluconic acid Mn(II) saltboraxBoric acid (H3BO3)Butan-1-Oln-ButaneButanoneGamma-ButyrolactoneCaffeinecalcium carbonatecalcium dihydroxidecalcium oxidecalcium sulfateCAPROLACTAMCapsaicinCarbon dioxideCarboxymethylcelluloseCarrageenanCholecalciferolCinnamaldehydecis-CitralCitric AcidCopper(II) sulfateCoumarinCyanocobalaminCyclohexaneCyclohexanoneCYCLOHEXYLAMINEDecanaldiammonium hydrogenorthophosphatediammonium peroxodisulphatedibenzoyl peroxideErioglaucine A disodium saltFast green FCFdiiron trioxideDimethylaminedinitrogen oxidedipotassium peroxodisulphateC.I. Food Red 1Disodium 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonatedisodium dihydrogenpyrophosphatedisodium metasilicatedisodium sulphidedisodium tetraborate, anhydrousEDTA, TETRASODIUMErgocalciferolethanethiolEthanolethyl acetateEthyl acrylateethyl formateethyl lactate2-PhenoxyethanolETHYLENE OXIDEethylenediamineEugenolFolic acidFormaldehydeFormic AcidFumaric acid 1furfuryl alcoholGlutaralGlycerolGlycineHexaneHydrochloric acidHYDROGEN PEROXIDEHydroxypropyl celluloseIronIsobutaneisopropyl acetateIsopropyl alcoholL-ArginineL-LysineDodecanoic acidLignosulfonic acid, sodium saltmagnesium chlorideMagnesium oxideManganese(II) oxideMasoprocolMethanolmethyl acetateMETHYL METHACRYLATEMethyl 2-hydroxybenzoateMETHYLENE CHLORIDEEthanolaminemorpholineMyristic acidNickelNiacinamide2-BiphenylolOleic acidPhosphoric acidPalmitic acidPhenolpolyacrylamidePolyethylenePolyox WSR-N 60Polypropylene glycol (m w 1,200-3,000)Polyvinyl acetatePolyvinyl AlcoholPOLYVINYL PYRROLIDONEPotassium bromidepotassium carbonatePotassium Chloridepotassium hydroxidePotassium IodidePotassium nitratepotassium sulfatepropanePropyl gallatePropyl AcetatePROPYLENE OXIDE1,3-BenzenediolRetinol acetateRiboflavinSalicylic acidSilicic acid, sodium saltsilicon dioxideSodium bicarbonatesodium carbonateSodium chlorideSODIUM CHLORITEsodium fluoridesodium hydroxideSodium hypochloriteSodium lauryl sulfateSodium nitrateSodium nitritesodium sulphiteSorbitan oleateStearic acidStyreneSuccinic acidSucroseSulfuric acid, iron(2+) salt, heptahydrate (1:1:7)sulphamidic acidsulphur dioxideSulfuric acidTalc (Mg3H2(SiO3)4)Butylated hydroxyanisoleThioureatitanium dioxidetrichloroethylene 1trisodium hydrogendicarbonatetrisodium nitrilotriacetatetrisodium orthophosphateUreaEthenyl acetateVitamin AXanthan gumZinc carbonateZinc chlorideZinc acetateZinc stearateZinc oxideChloroformHydrazine1,2-Dichloroethanep-Cresolo-CresolBiphenyl1-MethylnaphthaleneQuinolineCobaltous chlorideCobalt sulfateZinc dithioniteAllyl isothiocyanateMethyl isothiocyanatePotassium permanganateCopper gluconateCopper(I) iodideTin(II) chloride (SnCl2)Tin chlorideSodium aluminateAluminum palmitateAluminum oleateSodium aluminum phosphateSilver trifluoromethanesulfonatePotassium bromatem-CresolThiaminePyridoxineL-CarnitineNicotinic acidDimethyl sulfoxide4-Ethylphenol7-Methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneDiazenedicarboxamide2-Methoxy-4-propylphenol2-Propenyl 3-methylbutanoateDiacetylPotassium nitrite4-Tert-octylphenolPhenylacetic acidCysteineTrimethylamineTrimethylamine N-oxideHexanalEthylamine2-Octenal2-NonenalHeptanal2-Hexenal2-Heptenal4-DecenalNonanalAcetamideSafroleGamma-Aminobutyric acidL-Glutamic acidL-GlutaminePyruvic acidL-MethionineCholic acidBeta-AlanineL-IsoleucineL-PhenylalanineL-ThreonineL-TryptophanL-ValineL-TyrosineL-Proline3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acidAlpha-ketoisovaleric acidKetoleucineTyraminePropionic acidButyric acidCaprylic acidChloromethyl methyl etherOzoneCapric acid3,4-DimethylphenolOctyl gallate2,6-DimethylphenolMethyleugenol4-tert-Butylphenolp-CymeneDodecyl gallate2-EthoxyethanolDeoxycholic acidChlorine gasEdetic Acid 2Benzyl violet 4BCitrus Red No. 2Coconut oil diethanolamine condensate2,4 - HexadienalPalygorskite (Attapulgite) (long fibres, > 5 micrometres)Ponceau 3RPulegoneAmaranthpara - Aminobenzoic acidCinnamyl anthranilateCyclamates (sodium cyclamate)DulcinFurfuralGuinea Green BLight Green SFMethyl acrylateMethylglyoxalMusk ambrettePyridineStyrene - butadiene copolymersSuccinic anhydrideTheobromineVinylidene chloride - vinyl chloride copolymersVitamin K substancesIsophoroneEstragoleMetam potassiumDisodium cyanodithioimidocarbonateNabamSodium dimethyldithiocarbamate1-Undecanol2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA)2-Ethyl-3-propylacroleinChlorine dioxideEthylcelluloseFormic acid sodium salt (Sodium formate)Fuller's earthGuar gumHydrogen sulfide 2IndoleModified polysaccharide or Pregelatinized cornstarch or starchNitrogenPetroleum distillate/ naphthaSilica, amorphousSodium polyacrylatePeroxyacetic AcidIsopropylamineResinpropionaldehydediethyl acetalguaiacol 2methanethiol2,5-XYLENOL3-HEPTANONEBUTYL FORMATECYCLOPENTANONEETHYL 2,4,7-DECATRIENOATEISOAMYL FORMATEISOBUTYL FORMATEISOPROPYL FORMATEPIPERAZINEPROPYL FORMATEsec-BUTYLAMINETETRAHYDROFURFURYL ALCOHOLVALERIC ACIDAMYL FORMATEBROMELAINFICINMENTHYL PROPYLENE GLYCOL CARBONATEMONOCHLOROACETIC ACID--PROHIBITEDMUSK, KETONEPAPAIN (CARICA PAPAYA L.)PEPSINPETROLATUMPHOSPHORUS OXYCHLORIDEPIPERAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDETRYPSIN FROM ANIMAL TISSUETURPENTINE, STEAM DISTILLED (PINUS SPP.)

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