Exposure Routes

Ways in which we can be exposed to Nasty Substances

Common to all of us is Home, Workplace, School, Travel and Leisure. These are all potential Exposure Routes to Toxic Chemicals and other Toxins that enter us via our Breathing, Skin and Gut.

Food | EAFUS


  • MAIN CATEGORY: Food
  • SUB CATEGORY: EAFUS
  • DESCRIPTION: EAFUS (Everything added to food in the United States) November 2011  This information is generated from a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) under an ongoing program known as the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA). PAFA contains administrative, chemical and toxicological information on over 2000 substances directly added to food, including substances regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as direct, "secondary" direct, and color additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) and prior-sanctioned substances. In addition, the database contains only administrative and chemical information on less than 1000 such substances. The more than 3000 total substances together comprise an inventory often referred to as "Everything" Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS). The EAFUS list of substances contains ingredients added directly to food that FDA has either approved as food additives or listed or affirmed as GRAS. Nevertheless, it contains only a partial list of all food ingredients that may in fact be lawfully added to food, because under federal law some ingredients may be added to food under a GRAS determination made independently from the FDA. The list contains many, but not all, of the substances subject to independent GRAS determinations. For information about the GRAS notification program please consult the Inventory of GRAS Notifications. Additional information on the status of Food and Color Additives can be obtained from the Food Additive Status List or the Color Additive Status List (formerly called Appendix A of the Investigations Operations Manual).
  • DATA SOURCES: Each Toxin Profile contained within this Exposure Route shows a full list of data sources.
  • LAST UPDATE: 26/04/2018 8:00:14 PM

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Do you have time, expertise, knowledge or just raw passion to have less toxins in your life and the world. We would love your help. The form here (excel spreadsheeet - no macros - in .xls format) is all setup ready for you to add data and email it back to us. You can help with new Chemicals, new Exposure Routes or extra Nastiness Attributes or any combination of the above.


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Sub-category Exposure Routes

This Exposure Route can also have additional subcategory routes of exposure. The number of nasty chemicals in these sub category exposure routes are shown in orange. Occasional there are no subcategories and this section will be empty.



Substances known to be found within this Exposure Route. Some can be very harmful - check them out below.

Heads Up: This list may be quite long for some exposure routes.

1-Proponol 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide, sodium salt Propylene glycol 1,4-Dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanol, 9-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)- 2-Butanol 2-butoxyethanol Dimethylethanolamine 2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL 2-methylpropan-1-ol Diethylenetriamine Triethanolamine 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 4-methylpentan-2-one 5-Methyl-2-(1-Methylethyl)Phenol Acetaldehyde Acetic acid acetic anhydride Acetone acetophenone Acrolein adipic acid Aluminium hydroxide Aluminium sulfate Aluminium octadecanoate ammonia, aqueous solution ammonium chloride ammonium sulphate Bentonite benzaldehyde Benzene Benzophenone Benzyl acetate Benzyl Benzoate D-Glucose Biotin D-Gluconic acid Mn(II) salt borax Boric acid (H3BO3) Butan-1-Ol n-Butane Butanone Gamma-Butyrolactone Caffeine calcium carbonate calcium dihydroxide calcium oxide calcium sulfate CAPROLACTAM Capsaicin Carbon dioxide Carboxymethylcellulose Carrageenan Cholecalciferol Cinnamaldehyde cis-Citral Citric Acid Copper(II) sulfate Coumarin Cyanocobalamin Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone CYCLOHEXYLAMINE Decanal diammonium hydrogenorthophosphate diammonium peroxodisulphate dibenzoyl peroxide Erioglaucine A disodium salt Fast green FCF diiron trioxide Dimethylamine dinitrogen oxide dipotassium peroxodisulphate C.I. Food Red 1 Disodium 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonate disodium dihydrogenpyrophosphate disodium metasilicate disodium sulphide disodium tetraborate, anhydrous EDTA, TETRASODIUM Ergocalciferol ethanethiol Ethanol ethyl acetate Ethyl acrylate ethyl formate ethyl lactate 2-Phenoxyethanol ETHYLENE OXIDE ethylenediamine Eugenol Folic acid Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fumaric acid 1 furfuryl alcohol Glutaral Glycerol Glycine Hexane Hydrochloric acid HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Hydroxypropyl cellulose Iron Isobutane isopropyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol L-Arginine L-Lysine Dodecanoic acid Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt magnesium chloride Magnesium oxide Manganese(II) oxide Masoprocol Methanol methyl acetate METHYL METHACRYLATE Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate METHYLENE CHLORIDE Ethanolamine morpholine Myristic acid Nickel Niacinamide 2-Biphenylol Oleic acid Phosphoric acid Palmitic acid Phenol polyacrylamide Polyethylene Polyox WSR-N 60 Polypropylene glycol (m w 1,200-3,000) Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl Alcohol POLYVINYL PYRROLIDONE Potassium bromide potassium carbonate Potassium Chloride potassium hydroxide Potassium Iodide Potassium nitrate potassium sulfate propane Propyl gallate Propyl Acetate PROPYLENE OXIDE 1,3-Benzenediol Retinol acetate Riboflavin Salicylic acid Silicic acid, sodium salt silicon dioxide Sodium bicarbonate sodium carbonate Sodium chloride SODIUM CHLORITE sodium fluoride sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium lauryl sulfate Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite sodium sulphite Sorbitan oleate Stearic acid Styrene Succinic acid Sucrose Sulfuric acid, iron(2+) salt, heptahydrate (1:1:7) sulphamidic acid sulphur dioxide Sulfuric acid Talc (Mg3H2(SiO3)4) Butylated hydroxyanisole Thiourea titanium dioxide trichloroethylene 1 trisodium hydrogendicarbonate trisodium nitrilotriacetate trisodium orthophosphate Urea Ethenyl acetate Vitamin A Xanthan gum Zinc carbonate Zinc chloride Zinc acetate Zinc stearate Zinc oxide Chloroform Hydrazine 1,2-Dichloroethane p-Cresol o-Cresol Biphenyl 1-Methylnaphthalene Quinoline Cobaltous chloride Cobalt sulfate Zinc dithionite Allyl isothiocyanate Methyl isothiocyanate Potassium permanganate Copper gluconate Copper(I) iodide Tin(II) chloride (SnCl2) Tin chloride Sodium aluminate Aluminum palmitate Aluminum oleate Sodium aluminum phosphate Silver trifluoromethanesulfonate Potassium bromate m-Cresol Thiamine Pyridoxine L-Carnitine Nicotinic acid Dimethyl sulfoxide 4-Ethylphenol 7-Methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene Diazenedicarboxamide 2-Methoxy-4-propylphenol 2-Propenyl 3-methylbutanoate Diacetyl Potassium nitrite 4-Tert-octylphenol Phenylacetic acid Cysteine Trimethylamine Trimethylamine N-oxide Hexanal Ethylamine 2-Octenal 2-Nonenal Heptanal 2-Hexenal 2-Heptenal 4-Decenal Nonanal Acetamide Safrole Gamma-Aminobutyric acid L-Glutamic acid L-Glutamine Pyruvic acid L-Methionine Cholic acid Beta-Alanine L-Isoleucine L-Phenylalanine L-Threonine L-Tryptophan L-Valine L-Tyrosine L-Proline 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid Ketoleucine Tyramine Propionic acid Butyric acid Caprylic acid Chloromethyl methyl ether Ozone Capric acid 3,4-Dimethylphenol Octyl gallate 2,6-Dimethylphenol Methyleugenol 4-tert-Butylphenol p-Cymene Dodecyl gallate 2-Ethoxyethanol Deoxycholic acid Chlorine gas Edetic Acid 2 Benzyl violet 4B Citrus Red No. 2 Coconut oil diethanolamine condensate 2,4 - Hexadienal Palygorskite (Attapulgite) (long fibres, > 5 micrometres) Ponceau 3R Pulegone Amaranth para - Aminobenzoic acid Cinnamyl anthranilate Cyclamates (sodium cyclamate) Dulcin Furfural Guinea Green B Light Green SF Methyl acrylate Methylglyoxal Musk ambrette Pyridine Styrene - butadiene copolymers Succinic anhydride Theobromine Vinylidene chloride - vinyl chloride copolymers Vitamin K substances Isophorone Estragole Metam potassium Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate Nabam Sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate 1-Undecanol 2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) 2-Ethyl-3-propylacrolein Chlorine dioxide Ethylcellulose Formic acid sodium salt (Sodium formate) Fuller's earth Guar gum Hydrogen sulfide 2 Indole Modified polysaccharide or Pregelatinized cornstarch or starch Nitrogen Petroleum distillate/ naphtha Silica, amorphous Sodium polyacrylate Peroxyacetic Acid Isopropylamine Resin propionaldehyde diethyl acetal guaiacol 2 methanethiol 2,5-XYLENOL 3-HEPTANONE BUTYL FORMATE CYCLOPENTANONE ETHYL 2,4,7-DECATRIENOATE ISOAMYL FORMATE ISOBUTYL FORMATE ISOPROPYL FORMATE PIPERAZINE PROPYL FORMATE sec-BUTYLAMINE TETRAHYDROFURFURYL ALCOHOL VALERIC ACID AMYL FORMATE BROMELAIN FICIN MENTHYL PROPYLENE GLYCOL CARBONATE MONOCHLOROACETIC ACID--PROHIBITED MUSK, KETONE PAPAIN (CARICA PAPAYA L.) PEPSIN PETROLATUM PHOSPHORUS OXYCHLORIDE PIPERAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE TRYPSIN FROM ANIMAL TISSUE TURPENTINE, STEAM DISTILLED (PINUS SPP.)

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