Exposure Routes

Ways in which we can be exposed to Nasty Substances

Common to all of us is Home, Workplace, School, Travel and Leisure. These are all potential Exposure Routes to Toxic Chemicals and other Toxins that enter us via our Breathing, Skin and Gut.

Food | Indirect Food Additives


  • MAIN CATEGORY: Food
  • SUB CATEGORY: Indirect Food Additives
  • DESCRIPTION: Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances in USANovember 2011The information in the indirect additive database is generated from an application maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) under an ongoing program known as the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA). PAFA contains administrative and chemical information on over 3000 substances mentioned in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR) Parts 175, 176, 177, and 178. These parts of 21CFR deal with what are known as "indirect" food additives. These are substances used in food-contact articles, and include adhesives and components of coatings (Part 175), paper and paperboard components (Part 176), polymers (Part 177), and adjuvants and production aids (Part 178). In general, these are substances that may come into contact with food as part of packaging or processing equipment, but are not intended to be added directly to food. Additional "indirect" additives that are effective as part of the food contact substance notification program or that are exempted from regulation as food additives in accordance with 21 CFR 170.39 "Threshold of Regulation (TOR) exemptions for substances used in food-contact articles." are listed in separate inventories.Please note that by being listed below, no inference should be made about the legality of using any one of these specific substances as an "indirect" food additive. Their presence on this list only indicates that the names of these substances are found (or, in the case of some of the polymers, are implied) in 21CFR parts 175 - 178. The regulation(s) cited for a substance should always be consulted for the complete context before any conclusion is made as to allowed regulated use. To access the specific regulations listed below, type in the title number, 21, and then the section and part numbers, e.g. 175 and 105 at the Government Printing Office web site.
  • DATA SOURCES: Each Toxin Profile contained within this Exposure Route shows a full list of data sources.
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

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Sub-category Exposure Routes

This Exposure Route can also have additional subcategory routes of exposure. The number of nasty chemicals in these sub category exposure routes are shown in orange. Occassional there are no sub-categories and this section will be empty.



Toxic Substances found within this Exposure Route. There are probably more.

WARNING: This list may be VERY long for some exposure routes.

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one1,2-DIBROMO-2,4-DICYANOBUTANE1,3-Dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin1,4-Dichlorobenzene1,4-Dioxane2-((2-AMINOETHYL)AMINO)ETHANOL2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanolPiperonyl butoxide[2-(2-methoxymethylethoxy)methylethoxy]propanol2-amino-2-methylpropanolBronopol2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate2-ethylhexyl acrylate2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate2-Methoxyethanol(2-methoxymethylethoxy)propanol2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONEIsopentane2-Methylhexane2-methylpentane-2,4-diol2-methylpropan-2-ol2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanolDiethanolamine2,3-epoxypropyl phenyl ether2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol3-AMINOMETHYL-3,5,5- TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXYLAMINE3-Iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamateIsophorone diisocyanate3,6,9-triazaundecamethylenediamine4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-oneMethylene diphenyl diisocyanate5-CHLORO-2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONEacrylamideACRYLIC ACIDAcrylonitrileAluminium or AluminumAluminium(III) oxideAmmoniaAmmonium lauryl sulfateAmmonium nitrateBarium sulfate2(3H)-BenzothiazolethionebenzotriazoleBenzyl butyl phthalateDi(2-ethylhexyl)phthalateCalciumcalcium hypochloriteCalcium nitrateCaptanCarbon blackCarbon tetrachloridecelgardCelluloseCHLOROXYLENOLChromium(III) oxideCobaltCellulose nitrateDiisodecyl phthalateDibutyl phthalateDibutyltin dilauratedichloro-1,3,5-triazinetrioneDIDECYLDIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDEDiethyl phthalateDIETHYLENE GLYCOLDIETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOMETHYL ETHERAluminium monostearateDiisononyl phthalateDIMETHYL GLUTARATEDimethyl phthalate?,?-dimethylbenzyl hydroperoxideDi(n-octyl) phthalateDiphenylaminedodecylbenzenesulfonic acidedetic acidEPICHLOROHYDRIN-4, 4'-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL RESINethyl methacrylateethylene dimethacrylateEthylene glycolETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOETHYL ETHER ACETATE2-Phenoxyethanolglass, oxide, chemicalsGlycolic acidN-HeptaneMetenamineHydrogen fluorideHydroquinoneAluminum distearateISOBUTYL ACRYLATEKaolinKathon 886Polyethylene terephthalateMagnesium nitrateMaleic acidMALEIC ANHYDRIDEManganeseMelamineQuaternium-15methylenediphenyl diisocyanateLauroyl sarcosineN,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamineNitric acidNonoxynolnonylphenolNonylphenol, ethoxylatedCloropheneOxalic acidOxybenzonep-phenylenediamineParaffin waxes and Hydrocarbon waxes, chloroparaformPentanePHTHALIC ANHYDRIDEPoly[imino(1,6-dioxo-1,6-hexanediyl)imino-1,6-hexanediyl]Polymethyl MethacrylatePolytetrafluoroethylenepolyurethane foamPolyvinyl ChloridePotassium dichromatePotassium perchloratepropenePROPYLENE CARBONATEQuaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chloridesSodium bromideSodium lauroyl sarcosinateSODIUM PERBORATESODIUM PERSULFATEsodium sulphatestyrofoamSulphur or SulfursymcloseneTetrachloroethylenetetrahydrofuranThiramTolueneTRIBUTYL PHOSPHATEtrientineTRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDEtroclosene sodiumXYLENEZinczinc bis(dibutyldithiocarbamate)Zinc sulfateZinc sulfideBisphenol A 1Vinyl chloridePentachlorophenol1,1-DichloroetheneBis(2-chloroethyl) ether1,1,1-TrichloroethaneChlorobenzeneChrysotile asbestos4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)1,3-Butadiene1,1,2-TrichloroethaneCarbon disulfide2,3,4,5-TetrachlorophenolCarbon monoxideFluorinePyreneCobalt(II) acetateCobalt(II) naphthenateSodium chromateZinc chromateZinc hydroxideZinc nitrateZinc phosphateAmmonium thiocyanatePotassium ferricyanideCrocidolite AsbestosBarium acetateBarium hydroxideBarium peroxideManganous acetateCopper(I) bromideCopper(II) acetateCopper(II) carbonateCopper(II) nitrateCopper naphthenateDibutyltin dichlorideTributyltin chlorideBis(tributyltin) oxideMono-n-octyltin trichlorideDi-n-octyltin dichlorideTri-n-octyltin chlorideDibutyltin oxideTin(II) sulfateMonomethyltin tris(isooctyl mercaptoacetate)Dimethyltin bis(isooctyl mercaptoacetate)Dibutyltin diacetateChromium(III) nitrateZinc diethyldithiocarbamateZinc oleateZinc dimethyldithiocarbamateZinebAluminum triacetateAluminum sodium sulfateSilver chlorideSilver nitrateSilver(II) fluorideHexamethylene diisocyanate2,4-Toluene diisocyanate2,6-Toluene diisocyanateMethylene bis(4-cyclohexylisocyanate)Methylene thiocyanateEthylene cyanohydrinCalcium bromideDisulfiram1-Pentene2,4,4,-Trimethyl-1-penteneMethyl ethyl ketone peroxideIodineAmmonium laureth sulfateButyl decyl phthalateDiallyl phthalateDicyclohexyl phthalateDiisobutyl phthalateDiisooctyl phthalateDi-n-hexyl phthalateDiundecyl phthalaten-Octyl n-decyl phthalateDazomet2-NaphtholMethylaminePutrescineGuanidineEthylenethioureaTCMTBQuinone2,4-Toluenediamine4,4'-MethylenedianilineAzelaic AcidAnilineChloral hydrateDiethyl sulfate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)Dimethyl sulfate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)Epichlorohydrin (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)Styrene-7,8-oxide (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)Tetrafluoroethylene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A)1,2,3 - TrichloropropaneVinyl fluoride (NB: (1) Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic and other relevant data; (2) For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)AnthraquinoneAziridine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data)BenzofuranBitumens, occupational exposure to straight-run bitumens and their emissions during road paving 1Isopreneα - Methylstyrene2 - Nitropropanebeta - PropiolactoneSodium ortho - phenylphenateToluene diisocyanates11 - Aminoundecanoic acidpara - Benzoquinone dioximen - Butyl acrylateCopper 8 - hydroxyquinolineDi(2 - ethylhexyl) adipateN , N - DimethylanilineDimethylformamideEthyleneLauroyl peroxide1 - Naphthylamine4 - NitrobiphenylNylon 6meta - PhenylenediamineN - Phenyl - 2 - naphthylaminePolychloropreneStyrene - acrylonitr ile copolymersVinyl chloride - vinyl acetate copolymersVinylidene fluorideN - Vinyl - 2 - pyrrolidoneVinyl tolueneAsbestos 1Benzoyl chloridePentachlorophenol, Sodium Salt (see Pentachlorophenol and By-products of Its Synthesis)N-MethylolacrylamideDichlorophene1,6-HexanediamineAlcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated with 6.5 EO (Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylate)Alkyl quaternary ammonium bentonite 2Asphaltite (Gilsonite, Hydrocarbon black solid)Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, dimersFormamideGlyoxalGuar gum, carboxymethyl ether, sodium saltHydroxyethylcelluloseKeroseneMicaMonopentaerythritolN-methyldiethanolaminePhenolic resin (Phenoformaldehyde resin)Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethly)-sulfatePine oil 1PolycyclopentadieneSodium mercaptobenzothiazoleSodium polynaphthalene sulfonateSodiumN,N- Dimethyl-1,3-Propanediamine3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chlorideNapthaleneTriisopropanolamineHydroquinone monomethyl etherSodium ChlorateSulfuric Acid Salt2 - Hydroxyethyl acrylateALLYL GLYCIDYL ETHERALLYL METHACRYLATEALUMINUM, HYDROXYBIS[2,4,8,10-TETRAKIS(1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL)-6-HYDROXY12H-DIBENZOID[D,G][1,3,2]DIOXAPHOSPHOCIN 6-OXIDATO]AZO-BIS-ISOBUTYRONITRILEBENZOGUANAMINE3,9-BIS(2,4-BIS(1-METHYL-1-PHENYLETHYL)PHENOXY)-2,4,8,10-TETRAOXA-3,9-DIPHOPHASPIRO(5,5)UNDECANEBUTYLAMINOETHYL METHACRYLATE, TERT-BUTYL METHACRYLATECHLORACETAMIDECHLORANIL4-CHLORO-3-METHYLPHENOL1,4-CYCLOHEXANEDIMETHYL DIBENZOATEN-CYCLOHEXYL-2-BENZOTHIAZOLESULFENAMIDEDECYL ACRYLATE1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENEDICUMYL PEROXIDEDICYCLOHEXYLAMINEDICYCLOPENTADIENEDIETHYLAMINOPROPYLAMINEN,N-DIETHYLANILINEDIETHYL OXALATEDIISOPROPANOLAMINEDI(4-METHYLBENZOYL)PEROXIDE1,3-DIPHENYLGUANIDINE2,4-DI-TERT-PENTYL-6-(1-(3,5-DI-TERT-PENTYL-2-HYDROXYPHENYL)ETHYL)PHENYL ACRYLATE2,2'-DITHIOBIS(BENZOTHIAZOLE)N-DODECYLGUANIDINE ACETATE2,3-EPOXYPROPYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDEN,N'''-1,2-ETHANEDIYLBIS[N-[3-[[4,6-BIS[BUTYL(1,2,2,6,6-PENTAMETHYL-4-PIPERIDINYL)AMINO]-1,3,5-TRIAZIN-2-YL]AMINO]PROPYL]-N',N''-DIBUTYL-N',N''-BIS(1,2,2,6,6-PENTAMETHYL-4-PIPERIDINYL)-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4,6-DIAMINEGLYCIDYL METHACRYLATE(N5-CYCLOPENTADIENYL)(N6-ISOPROPYLBENZENE) IRON (II) HEXAFLUOROPHOSPHATEHYDROQUINONE MONOBENZYL ETHERHYDROXYPROPYL ACRYLATE2-HYDROXYPROPYL METHACRYLATEIMINO-BIS-PROPYLAMINEISOBUTYL METHACRYLATEN-ISOPROPYL-N'-PHENYL-P-PHENYLENEDIAMINEMENAZONMETHACRYLONITRILE4-METHYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(2-METHYLCYCLOHEXYLAMINE)2,2'-METHYLENEBIS(4,6-DI-TERT-BUTYLPHENYL) 2-ETHYLHEXYL PHOSPHITE5-NORBORNENE-2,3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE, ENDO-CIS-OCTYL ACRYLATEN-(OXYDIETHYLENE)BENZOTHIAZOLE-2-SULFENAMIDE2-(4,6-DIPHENYL-1,3,5-TRIAZIN-2-YL)-5-HEXYLOXY)PHENOLPHOSPHOROTHIOIC ACID, O,O,O-TRIPHENYL ESTER, TERT-BUTYL DERIVATIVESPHOSPHOROUS ACID, CYCLIC BUTYLETHYL PROPANEDIOL, 2,4,6-TRI-TERT-BUTYLPHENYL ESTERPHOSPHOROUS ACID, CYCLIC NEOPENTANETETRAYL BIS (2,6-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-METHYLPHENYL)ESTERPHOSPHOROUS TRICHLORIDEPOLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINEPOTASSIUM DICHLOROISOCYANURATEPYRETHRINSPYROMELLITIC DIANHYDRIDESODIUM POLYSULFIDESODIUM P-TOLUENESULFONCHLOROAMIDESULFANILIC ACIDTALL OIL ROSINTERT-BUTYL ACRYLATETERT-BUTYL PEROXIDETETRACHLOROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE2,3,5,6-TETRACHLORO-4-(METHYLSULFONYL) PYRIDINETETRAHYDROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDETETRAMETHYLTHIURAM MONOSULFIDETRIOXANETRIPHENYL PHOSPHITETRIS(NONYLPHENYL) PHOSPHITEXYLENOL

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