Exposure Routes

Ways in which we can be exposed to Nasty Substances

Common to all of us is Home, Workplace, School, Travel and Leisure. These are all potential Exposure Routes to Toxic Chemicals and other Toxins that enter us via our Breathing, Skin and Gut.

Food | Indirect Food Additives


  • MAIN CATEGORY: Food
  • SUB CATEGORY: Indirect Food Additives
  • DESCRIPTION: Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances in USA November 2011 The information in the indirect additive database is generated from an application maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) under an ongoing program known as the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA). PAFA contains administrative and chemical information on over 3000 substances mentioned in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR) Parts 175, 176, 177, and 178. These parts of 21CFR deal with what are known as "indirect" food additives. These are substances used in food-contact articles, and include adhesives and components of coatings (Part 175), paper and paperboard components (Part 176), polymers (Part 177), and adjuvants and production aids (Part 178). In general, these are substances that may come into contact with food as part of packaging or processing equipment, but are not intended to be added directly to food. Additional "indirect" additives that are effective as part of the food contact substance notification program or that are exempted from regulation as food additives in accordance with 21 CFR 170.39 "Threshold of Regulation (TOR) exemptions for substances used in food-contact articles." are listed in separate inventories. Please note that by being listed below, no inference should be made about the legality of using any one of these specific substances as an "indirect" food additive. Their presence on this list only indicates that the names of these substances are found (or, in the case of some of the polymers, are implied) in 21CFR parts 175 - 178. The regulation(s) cited for a substance should always be consulted for the complete context before any conclusion is made as to allowed regulated use. To access the specific regulations listed below, type in the title number, 21, and then the section and part numbers, e.g. 175 and 105 at the Government Printing Office web site.
  • DATA SOURCES: Each Toxin Profile contained within this Exposure Route shows a full list of data sources.
  • LAST UPDATE: 26/04/2018 8:00:14 PM

Spread the word

These Exposure Routes are ONLY based on peer-reviewed evidence. Everyone benefits from knowing this stuff. Please Share.



Do you have time, expertise, knowledge or just raw passion to have less toxins in your life and the world. We would love your help. The form here (excel spreadsheeet - no macros - in .xls format) is all setup ready for you to add data and email it back to us. You can help with new Chemicals, new Exposure Routes or extra Nastiness Attributes or any combination of the above.


Download Form Here

Sub-category Exposure Routes

This Exposure Route can also have additional subcategory routes of exposure. The number of nasty chemicals in these sub category exposure routes are shown in orange. Occasional there are no subcategories and this section will be empty.



Substances known to be found within this Exposure Route. Some can be very harmful - check them out below.

Heads Up: This list may be quite long for some exposure routes.

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,2-DIBROMO-2,4-DICYANOBUTANE 1,3-Dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin 1,4-BUTYLENE GLYCOL 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dioxane 2-((2-AMINOETHYL)AMINO)ETHANOL 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol Piperonyl butoxide [2-(2-methoxymethylethoxy)methylethoxy]propanol 2-amino-2-methylpropanol Bronopol 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate 2-ethylhexyl acrylate 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate 2-Methoxyethanol (2-methoxymethylethoxy)propanol 2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE Isopentane 2-Methylhexane 2-methylpentane-2,4-diol 2-methylpropan-2-ol 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanol Diethanolamine 2,3-epoxypropyl phenyl ether 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol 3-AMINOMETHYL-3,5,5- TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXYLAMINE 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate Isophorone diisocyanate 3,6,9-triazaundecamethylenediamine 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate 5-CHLORO-2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE acrylamide ACRYLIC ACID Acrylonitrile Aluminium Aluminium(III) oxide Ammonia Ammonium lauryl sulfate Ammonium nitrate Barium sulfate 2(3H)-Benzothiazolethione benzotriazole Benzyl butyl phthalate Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Calcium calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Captan Carbon black Carbon tetrachloride celgard Cellulose CHLOROXYLENOL Chromium(III) oxide Cobalt Cellulose nitrate Diisodecyl phthalate Dibutyl phthalate Dibutyltin dilaurate dichloro-1,3,5-triazinetrione DIDECYLDIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE Diethyl phthalate DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOMETHYL ETHER Aluminium monostearate Diisononyl phthalate DIMETHYL GLUTARATE Dimethyl phthalate ?,?-dimethylbenzyl hydroperoxide Di(n-octyl) phthalate Diphenylamine dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid edetic acid EPICHLOROHYDRIN-4, 4'-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL RESIN ethyl methacrylate ethylene dimethacrylate Ethylene glycol ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOETHYL ETHER ACETATE 2-Phenoxyethanol glass, oxide, chemicals Glycolic acid N-Heptane Metenamine Hydrogen fluoride Hydroquinone Aluminum distearate ISOBUTYL ACRYLATE Kaolin Kathon 886 Polyethylene terephthalate Magnesium nitrate Maleic acid MALEIC ANHYDRIDE Manganese Melamine Quaternium-15 methylenediphenyl diisocyanate Lauroyl sarcosine N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine Nitric acid Nonoxynol nonylphenol Nonylphenol, ethoxylated Clorophene Oxalic acid Oxybenzone p-phenylenediamine Paraffin waxes and Hydrocarbon waxes, chloro paraform Pentane PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE Poly[imino(1,6-dioxo-1,6-hexanediyl)imino-1,6-hexanediyl] Polymethyl Methacrylate Polytetrafluoroethylene polyurethane foam Polyvinyl Chloride Potassium dichromate Potassium perchlorate propene PROPYLENE CARBONATE Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chlorides Sodium bromide Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate SODIUM PERBORATE SODIUM PERSULFATE sodium sulphate styrofoam Sulphur symclosene Tetrachloroethylene tetrahydrofuran Thiram Toluene TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE trientine TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE troclosene sodium XYLENE Zinc zinc bis(dibutyldithiocarbamate) Zinc sulfate Zinc sulfide Bisphenol A 1 Vinyl chloride Pentachlorophenol 1,1-Dichloroethene Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Chlorobenzene Chrysotile asbestos 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 1,3-Butadiene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Carbon disulfide 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol Carbon monoxide Fluorine Pyrene Cobalt(II) acetate Cobalt(II) naphthenate Sodium chromate Zinc chromate Zinc hydroxide Zinc nitrate Zinc phosphate Ammonium thiocyanate Potassium ferricyanide Crocidolite Asbestos Barium acetate Barium hydroxide Barium peroxide Manganous acetate Copper(I) bromide Copper(II) acetate Copper(II) carbonate Copper(II) nitrate Copper naphthenate Dibutyltin dichloride Tributyltin chloride Bis(tributyltin) oxide Mono-n-octyltin trichloride Di-n-octyltin dichloride Tri-n-octyltin chloride Dibutyltin oxide Tin(II) sulfate Monomethyltin tris(isooctyl mercaptoacetate) Dimethyltin bis(isooctyl mercaptoacetate) Dibutyltin diacetate Chromium(III) nitrate Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate Zinc oleate Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate Zineb Aluminum triacetate Aluminum sodium sulfate Silver chloride Silver nitrate Silver(II) fluoride Hexamethylene diisocyanate 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate 2,6-Toluene diisocyanate Methylene bis(4-cyclohexylisocyanate) Methylene thiocyanate Ethylene cyanohydrin Calcium bromide Disulfiram 1-Pentene 2,4,4,-Trimethyl-1-pentene Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide Iodine Ammonium laureth sulfate Butyl decyl phthalate Diallyl phthalate Dicyclohexyl phthalate Diisobutyl phthalate Diisooctyl phthalate Di-n-hexyl phthalate Diundecyl phthalate n-Octyl n-decyl phthalate Dazomet 2-Naphthol Methylamine Putrescine Guanidine Ethylenethiourea TCMTB Quinone 2,4-Toluenediamine 4,4'-Methylenedianiline Azelaic Acid Aniline Chloral hydrate Diethyl sulfate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data) Dimethyl sulfate (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data) Epichlorohydrin (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data) Styrene-7,8-oxide (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data) Tetrafluoroethylene (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A) 1,2,3 - Trichloropropane Vinyl fluoride (NB: (1) Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic and other relevant data; (2) For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.) Anthraquinone Aziridine (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2B with supporting evidence from other relevant data) Benzofuran Bitumens, occupational exposure to straight-run bitumens and their emissions during road paving 1 Isoprene α - Methylstyrene 2 - Nitropropane beta - Propiolactone Sodium ortho - phenylphenate Toluene diisocyanates 11 - Aminoundecanoic acid para - Benzoquinone dioxime n - Butyl acrylate Copper 8 - hydroxyquinoline Di(2 - ethylhexyl) adipate N , N - Dimethylaniline Dimethylformamide Ethylene Lauroyl peroxide 1 - Naphthylamine 4 - Nitrobiphenyl Nylon 6 meta - Phenylenediamine N - Phenyl - 2 - naphthylamine Polychloroprene Styrene - acrylonitr ile copolymers Vinyl chloride - vinyl acetate copolymers Vinylidene fluoride N - Vinyl - 2 - pyrrolidone Vinyl toluene Asbestos 1 Benzoyl chloride Pentachlorophenol, Sodium Salt (see Pentachlorophenol and By-products of Its Synthesis) N-Methylolacrylamide Dichlorophene 1,6-Hexanediamine Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated with 6.5 EO (Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylate) Alkyl quaternary ammonium bentonite 2 Asphaltite (Gilsonite, Hydrocarbon black solid) Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, dimers Formamide Glyoxal Guar gum, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt Hydroxyethylcellulose Kerosene Mica Monopentaerythritol N-methyldiethanolamine Phenolic resin (Phenoformaldehyde resin) Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethly)-sulfate Pine oil 1 Polycyclopentadiene Sodium mercaptobenzothiazole Sodium polynaphthalene sulfonate Sodium N,N- Dimethyl-1,3-Propanediamine 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride Napthalene Triisopropanolamine Hydroquinone monomethyl ether Sodium Chlorate Sulfuric Acid Salt 2 - Hydroxyethyl acrylate ALLYL GLYCIDYL ETHER ALLYL METHACRYLATE ALUMINUM, HYDROXYBIS[2,4,8,10-TETRAKIS(1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL)-6-HYDROXY12H-DIBENZOID[D,G][1,3,2]DIOXAPHOSPHOCIN 6-OXIDATO] AZO-BIS-ISOBUTYRONITRILE BENZOGUANAMINE 3,9-BIS(2,4-BIS(1-METHYL-1-PHENYLETHYL)PHENOXY)-2,4,8,10-TETRAOXA-3,9-DIPHOPHASPIRO(5,5)UNDECANE BUTYLAMINOETHYL METHACRYLATE, TERT- BUTYL METHACRYLATE CHLORACETAMIDE CHLORANIL 4-CHLORO-3-METHYLPHENOL 1,4-CYCLOHEXANEDIMETHYL DIBENZOATE N-CYCLOHEXYL-2-BENZOTHIAZOLESULFENAMIDE DECYL ACRYLATE 1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE DICUMYL PEROXIDE DICYCLOHEXYLAMINE DICYCLOPENTADIENE DIETHYLAMINOPROPYLAMINE N,N-DIETHYLANILINE DIETHYL OXALATE DIISOPROPANOLAMINE DI(4-METHYLBENZOYL)PEROXIDE 1,3-DIPHENYLGUANIDINE 2,4-DI-TERT-PENTYL-6-(1-(3,5-DI-TERT-PENTYL-2-HYDROXYPHENYL)ETHYL)PHENYL ACRYLATE 2,2'-DITHIOBIS(BENZOTHIAZOLE) N-DODECYLGUANIDINE ACETATE 2,3-EPOXYPROPYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE N,N'''-1,2-ETHANEDIYLBIS[N-[3-[[4,6-BIS[BUTYL(1,2,2,6,6-PENTAMETHYL-4-PIPERIDINYL)AMINO]-1,3,5-TRIAZIN-2-YL]AMINO]PROPYL]-N',N''-DIBUTYL-N',N''-BIS(1,2,2,6,6-PENTAMETHYL-4-PIPERIDINYL)-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4,6-DIAMINE GLYCIDYL METHACRYLATE (N5-CYCLOPENTADIENYL)(N6-ISOPROPYLBENZENE) IRON (II) HEXAFLUOROPHOSPHATE HYDROQUINONE MONOBENZYL ETHER HYDROXYPROPYL ACRYLATE 2-HYDROXYPROPYL METHACRYLATE IMINO-BIS-PROPYLAMINE ISOBUTYL METHACRYLATE N-ISOPROPYL-N'-PHENYL-P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE MENAZON METHACRYLONITRILE 4-METHYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID 4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(2-METHYLCYCLOHEXYLAMINE) 2,2'-METHYLENEBIS(4,6-DI-TERT-BUTYLPHENYL) 2-ETHYLHEXYL PHOSPHITE 5-NORBORNENE-2,3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE, ENDO-CIS- OCTYL ACRYLATE N-(OXYDIETHYLENE)BENZOTHIAZOLE-2-SULFENAMIDE 2-(4,6-DIPHENYL-1,3,5-TRIAZIN-2-YL)-5-HEXYLOXY)PHENOL PHOSPHOROTHIOIC ACID, O,O,O-TRIPHENYL ESTER, TERT-BUTYL DERIVATIVES PHOSPHOROUS ACID, CYCLIC BUTYLETHYL PROPANEDIOL, 2,4,6-TRI-TERT-BUTYLPHENYL ESTER PHOSPHOROUS ACID, CYCLIC NEOPENTANETETRAYL BIS (2,6-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-METHYLPHENYL)ESTER PHOSPHOROUS TRICHLORIDE POLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINE POTASSIUM DICHLOROISOCYANURATE PYRETHRINS PYROMELLITIC DIANHYDRIDE SODIUM POLYSULFIDE SODIUM P-TOLUENESULFONCHLOROAMIDE SULFANILIC ACID TALL OIL ROSIN TERT-BUTYL ACRYLATE TERT-BUTYL PEROXIDE TETRACHLOROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 2,3,5,6-TETRACHLORO-4-(METHYLSULFONYL) PYRIDINE TETRAHYDROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE TETRAMETHYLTHIURAM MONOSULFIDE TRIOXANE TRIPHENYL PHOSPHITE TRIS(NONYLPHENYL) PHOSPHITE XYLENOL

Stay Informed

Information and innovation is added hourly at Toxno - well daily at least.