Exposure Routes

Ways in which we can be exposed to Nasty Substances

Common to all of us is Home, Workplace, School, Travel and Leisure. These are all potential Exposure Routes to Toxic Chemicals and other Toxins that enter us via our Breathing, Skin and Gut.

Mining | CSG - Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)


  • MAIN CATEGORY: Mining
  • SUB CATEGORY: CSG - Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)
  • DESCRIPTION: Emerging trends about CSG from new data in 2015… Growing evidence shows that regulations are simply not capable of preventing harm. Drinking water is at risk from drilling and fracking activities and associated waste disposal practices.  In the US for instance, 234 private drinking water wells have been contaminated by drilling and fracking operations during the past seven years. Drilling and fracking emissions often contain strikingly high levels of benzene. A potent human carcinogen, benzene has been detected in the urine of wellpad workers (at levels known to raise risks for leukemia), in private drinking water wells contaminated by fracking operations, and in ambient air at nearby residences. Public health problems associated with drilling and fracking are becoming increasingly apparent. Documented indicators include increased rates of hospitalization, ambulance calls, emergency room visits, self-reported respiratory and skin problems, motor vehicle fatalities, trauma, drug abuse, infant mortality, congenital heart defects, and low birth weight. Natural gas is a bigger threat to the climate than previously supposed. Methane is not only a more potent greenhouse gas than formerly appreciated, real-world leakage rates are higher than predicted. Within the last five months, multiple teams of independent scientists have published data on fugitive emissions that, all together, call into question earlier presumed climate benefits from replacing coal with natural gas. Further, evidence increasingly suggests that the natural gas abundance brought by fracking is slowing the transition to renewable energy and is thus exacerbating, rather than mitigating, the climate change crisis. "The Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms of Fracking is a fully-referenced compilation of the evidence for the risks and harms of fracking that brings together findings from the scientific and medical literature,government and industry reports, and journalistic investigation. It is a public, open-access document that is housed on the website of Concerned Health Professionals of New York (www.concernedhealthny.org). Since its release in July 2014, it has been used and referenced all over the world. “
  • DATA SOURCES: Each Toxin Profile contained within this Exposure Route shows a full list of data sources.
  • LAST UPDATE: 26/04/2018 8:00:14 PM

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Sub-category Exposure Routes

This Exposure Route can also have additional subcategory routes of exposure. The number of nasty chemicals in these sub category exposure routes are shown in orange. Occasional there are no subcategories and this section will be empty.



Substances known to be found within this Exposure Route. Some can be very harmful - check them out below.

Heads Up: This list may be quite long for some exposure routes.

1-butoxypropan-2-ol 1-lauryl-2-pyrrolidone Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone 1-Proponol 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,2-DIBROMO-2,4-DICYANOBUTANE Propylene glycol 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1) 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,4-Dioxane 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol [2-(2-methoxymethylethoxy)methylethoxy]propanol 2-amino-2-methylpropanol Bronopol 2-butoxyethanol Dimethylethanolamine 2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL 2-Methoxyethanol (2-methoxymethylethoxy)propanol 2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE Isopentane 2-Methylhexane 2-Methylpentane 2-methylpentane-2,4-diol 2-methylpropan-1-ol 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanol Diethylenetriamine Diethanolamine 2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanol Triethanolamine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 3-Methylhexane 3-Methylpentane 3,5,7-Triaza-1-azoniatricyclo[ 3.3.1.13#,7]decane, 1-(3-chloro-2-propenyl)-, chloride, (Z)- 3,6,9-triazaundecamethylenediamine 4-methylpentan-2-one 5-CHLORO-2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE 9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium chloride Acetaldehyde Acetic acid acetic anhydride Acetone acetophenone Acrolein acrylamide ACRYLIC ACID Acrylonitrile adipic acid Alcohols, C11-15-secondary, ethoxylated Alcohols, C12-14, ethoxylated Alkanes, C12-14-iso- Aluminium Aluminium chloride aluminium silicate (version1) Aluminium sulfate Aluminium octadecanoate Aluminium(III) oxide Ammonia ammonia, aqueous solution ammonium chloride Ammonium lauryl sulfate ammonium hydrogensulphite ammonium mercaptoacetate Ammonium nitrate ammonium sulphate Antimony Antimony trioxide Arsenic Barium Barium sulfate Bentonite Benzo[a]anthracene benzaldehyde Benzene Benzo[a]pyrene Benzo[b]fluoranthene Benzo[k]fluoranthene D-Glucose Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate borax Boric acid (H3BO3) Boron sodium oxide (B4Na2O7), pentahydrate Butan-1-Ol n-Butane Butanone butanone oxime butyl 2,3-epoxypropyl ether Cadmium Calcium calcium carbonate calcium chloride 1 calcium dihydroxide calcium hypochlorite calcium oxide calcium sulfate carbon Carbon black Carbon dioxide Carboxymethylcellulose celgard Cellulose chloromethane Chromium Chrysene Cinnamaldehyde cis-Citral Citric Acid Cobalt Copper Copper(II) sulfate Coumarin cristobalite Isopropylbenzene Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone diammonium carbonate diammonium hydrogenorthophosphate diammonium peroxodisulphate Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene Dibutyl phthalate DIDECYLDIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE Diethyl phthalate DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOMETHYL ETHER Erioglaucine A disodium salt diiron trioxide DIMETHYL GLUTARATE Di(n-octyl) phthalate Diphenylamine dipotassium peroxodisulphate Disodium 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonate disodium dihydrogenpyrophosphate disodium metasilicate disodium sulphide disodium tetraborate, anhydrous dodecyl(2-hydroxy-3-sulphonatopropyl)dimethylammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid edetic acid EDTA, TETRASODIUM EPICHLOROHYDRIN-4, 4'-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL RESIN ethane ethanethiol Ethanol ethyl acetate ethyl lactate Ethylbenzene Ethylene glycol ETHYLENE OXIDE ethylenediamine Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fumaric acid 1 furfuryl alcohol glass, oxide, chemicals Glutaral Glycerol Glycine, N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:3:1) Glycolic acid Graphite Hematite (Fe2O3) N-Heptane Metenamine Hexane Hydrogen fluoride Hydrochloric acid HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Hydroxypropyl cellulose Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Iron iron sulphate Isobutane Isopropyl alcohol Kaolin Kathon 886 L-Lactic acid Dodecanoic acid Lead Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium salt Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt Limestone m-Xylene magnesium chloride Magnesium nitrate Magnesium oxide Magnesium Sulfate Manganese mercaptoacetic acid Mercury mesitylene Methanol Quaternium-15 Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate methylcyclohexane METHYLENE CHLORIDE Ethanolamine morpholine Myristic acid N-(2-hydroxypropyl)oleamide Naphthalene Nickel Nitrilotriacetic Acid Nonoxynol nonylphenol Nonylphenol, ethoxylated octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane Octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol Oleic acid Phosphoric acid p-Xylene Palmitic acid paraform Pentane Perboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydrate Phenol phosphogypsum Phosphorus PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE Poly[imino(1,6-dioxo-1,6-hexanediyl)imino-1,6-hexanediyl] polyacrylamide Polyox WSR-N 60 Polypropylene glycol (m w 1,200-3,000) Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl Alcohol POLYVINYL PYRROLIDONE potassium carbonate Potassium Chloride Potassium dichromate potassium hydroxide Potassium Iodide potassium sulfate propane propene propylbenzene PROPYLENE CARBONATE PROPYLENE OXIDE Quartz (SiO2) Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chlorides Silicic acid, sodium salt silicon dioxide Silver Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bromide sodium carbonate Sodium chloride SODIUM CHLORITE sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium lauryl sulfate Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite SODIUM PERBORATE SODIUM PERSULFATE sodium sulphate sodium sulphite sodium thiosulphate Sorbitan oleate Stearic acid Styrene Sucrose Sulphur Sulfuric acid, calcium salt, hydrate (1:1:2) Sulfuric acid, iron(2+) salt (1:1), monohydrate Sulfuric acid, iron(2+) salt, heptahydrate (1:1:7) Sulfuric acid, zinc salt (1:1), monohydrate sulphamidic acid sulphur dioxide Sulfuric acid symclosene Talc (Mg3H2(SiO3)4) Tetrachloroethylene tetrahydrofuran Thiourea Tin titanium dioxide Toluene TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE trientine trimethylbenzene trisodium hydrogendicarbonate trisodium nitrilotriacetate trisodium orthophosphate troclosene sodium Urea Xanthan gum XYLENE Zinc Zinc carbonate Zinc chloride Zinc oxide Bisphenol A 1 Chloroform Dieldrin P,P'-DDE Aldrin Aroclor 1248 gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane Heptachlor beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane Beryllium delta-Hexachlorocyclohexane Pentachlorophenol Heptachlor epoxide Methane beta Endosulfan Endrin aldehyde Hydrazine Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether Radium-226 Radium-228 Fluoranthene 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene Selenium 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methylnaphthalene p-Cresol Carbon disulfide o-Cresol Vanadium 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene Cesium-137 Phorate Phenanthrene Dibromochloromethane Pyrene Phosphine Acenaphthylene Benzo[ghi]perylene Fluorene 1-Methylnaphthalene Quinoline Cobalt(II) acetate Cobaltous chloride Nickel sulfate Ammonium thiocyanate Uranium o-Xylene Antimony pentoxide Antimony trichloride Copper(I) chloride Copper(I) iodide Copper(II) chloride Tin(II) chloride (SnCl2) Chromium(III) acetate Aluminium chlorohydrate Aluminium isopropoxide Sodium aluminate Sodium aluminum phosphate Methylene thiocyanate Sodium bromate Calcium bromide Bromoform Bromomethane m-Cresol Dapsone 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ammonium laureth sulfate Dazomet Thallium Trimethylamine Trimethylamine N-oxide Hexanal Safrole L-Glutamic acid Propionic acid TCMTB Butyric acid Caprylic acid Ozone Butylbenzene Capric acid p-Cymene 2-Ethoxyethanol Bromide ion Chlorine gas Aniline Epichlorohydrin (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data) Bromodichloromethane Coconut oil diethanolamine condensate Dibromoacetonitrile 1,3 - Dichloropropene (technical - grade) Isoprene Palygorskite (Attapulgite) (long fibres, > 5 micrometres) Amaranth Ampicillin Blue VRS Chrom ium (III) compounds Crude oil Dimethylformamide Ethylene Fluorides (inorganic, used in drinking - water) Furfural N - Nitrosodiphenylamine Nylon 6 Pyridine Styrene - butadiene copolymers alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures) Crotonaldehyde 2 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene 1,6-Hexanediamine 1-Undecanol 2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid polymer 2-Ethyl-3-propylacrolein Acetaldol Acetic acid 100 atom % D Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated with 6.5 EO (Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylate) Aliphatic amine Aliphatic hydrocarbon Alkyl quaternary ammonium bentonite 1 Alkyl quaternary ammonium bentonite 2 Alkyl quaternary ammonium montmorillonite Aluminium dicalcium iron pentaoxide Aluminum calcium oxide 2:1 Amine treated hectorite Ammonium bisulfate Amoco NT-45 process oil [Diesel 2] Aromatic naphtha, Type I (light) (Light aromatic solvent) Asphaltite (Gilsonite, Hydrocarbon black solid) Bauxite Benzenesulfonic acid Benzododecinium chloride Blast furnace slag Boric oxide Cement kiln dusts Ceramic material Chlorine dioxide Chrome acetate Coal Cottonseed flour Crystalline silica, tridymite Diatomaceous earth, calcined Diatomite Dicalcium silicate Diesel 2 Diesel fuel (low and high sulphur) Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated (mild) heavy naphthenic (9CI) Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated (mild) heavy paraffinic (9CI) Drakeol EO-C9-11-iso, C10-rich alcohols Ethyl octynol Ethyl silicate, partially hydrolyzed Ethylcellulose Fatty acid soap Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, dimers Formamide Formic acid sodium salt (Sodium formate) Fuel oil #2 Fuel oil #5 Fuller's earth Glyoxal Guar gum Guar gum, carboxymethyl 2-hydroxypropyl ether, sodium salt Guar gum, carboxymethyl ether, sodium salt Heavy aromatic petroleum naphtha (aromatic solvent) Hemicellulase enzyme Hexaaluminium pentaoxide disilicate Hexanes Humic acid (Leonardite) Hydrodesulfurized kerosene Hydrogen sulfide 2 Hydrotreated heavy petroleum naphtha Hydroxyethylcellulose Indole Kerosene Kyanite Light naphthenic distallates, hydrotreated Lignite Lignosulfonic acid, chromium salt Lubricating oils (petroleum), C15- 30, hydrotreated neutral oil-based Lubricating oils (petroleum), C20- 50, hydrotreated neutral oil-based Lubricating oils (petroleum), C20- 50, hydrotreated neutral oil-based, high-viscosity Lubricating oils, (petroleum), C15-30, hydrotreated neutral oil-based, contg. solvent deasphalted residual oil Magnesium aluminum silicate Mica Mineral oil, petroleum distillates, raffinates, sorption process Mineral spirits Modified polysaccharide Modified polysaccharide or Pregelatinized cornstarch or starch Monopentaerythritol N, N'-Methylene bis (5-methyl oxazolidine) Naphtha, petroleum medium aliphatic Naphtha, petroleum, heavy catalytic reformed Natural gas condensates Natural gas condensates 2 Nitrogen N-methyldiethanolamine Oxydiethylene bis(alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) Petroleum distillate (straight run middle distillate) Petroleum distillate hydrotreated light Petroleum distillate/ naphtha Petroleum product Phenolic resin (Phenoformaldehyde resin) Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethly)-sulfate Pine oil 1 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),alpha-(4-nonylphenyl)-omega-hydroxy-,branched Polyacrylamide/polyacrylate copolymer (Copolyer of acrylamide & sodium acrylate, partially hydrolized polyacrylalmide) Polycyclopentadiene Polymer sodium acrylate:acrylic acid Potassium aluminum fluoride Potassium metaborate Propargyl alcohol (Prop-2-YN-1-OL) Pyrimidine Sepiolite Silane, dichlorodimethyl-, reaction products with silica Silica, amorphous Silicone Sodium asphalt sulfonate Sodium mercaptobenzothiazole Sodium metasilicate Sodium montmorillonite Sodium polyacrylate Sodium polynaphthalene sulfonate Sulfomethylated quebracho Tall oil, diethylenetriamine imidazoline (Cellulose) Tetramethyl ammonium chloride Ulexite Vermiculite Walnut hulls Zirconium nitrate Zirconium oxychloride Zirconium sulfate Zirconium, tetrakis(2-(bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-kappaN)ethanolato-kappaO)- Cyanide, total Sodium Tert-butylbenzene Sodium perborate tetrahydrate Paraffinic petroleum distillate Peroxyacetic Acid N,N- Dimethyl-1,3-Propanediamine Boric Acid, sodium salt Heavy Aromatic Naphtha 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride Hydroxylamine hydrochloride Mineral Spirits 2 Petroleum distillates, dewaxed heavy paraffinic Distillates (petroleum, Catalystic Refomer trictionator, low boiling Napthalene Alkanes, Xylene, Ethyl Benzene, Napthalene, Trimethylbenzene Proteolytic Enzyme Triisopropanolamine C9 to C21 Alkanes, Linear and Branched Hydroquinone monomethyl ether Isopropylamine Methoxyacetic acid Resin Pentaethylenehexamine benzene, 1,1-oxybis-, sec-hexyl derivatives, sulfonated sodium salts Sodium Chlorate Glycol Ether Distillates, petroleum, solvent-refined heavy paraffinic Erucic amidopropyl dimethyl betaine Sulfuric Acid Salt 1-(1-Naphthylmethyl)quinolinium chloride Sodium chloroacetate (z)-13 docosenyl-n,n-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-n-met hyl ammonium chloride 2 - Hydroxyethyl acrylate alpha - Amylase Distillates, petroleum, hydrodesulfurized light catalytic cracked Distillates, petroleum, hydrodesulfurized middle Distillates, petroleum, light catalytic cracked Distillates, petroleum, light hydrocracked Distillates, petroleum, solvent - refined heavy naphthenic Distillates, petroleum, steam - cracked Distillates, petroleum, sweetened middle Heavy aromatic distillate Magnesium phosphide Petrolatum, petroleum, oxidized Propanimidamide,2,2’' aAzobis[(2 - methyl -, amidinopropane) dihydrochloride Pyridine, alkyl derivs. Residual oils, petroleum, solvent - refined SODIUM PERBORATE HYDRATE Sodium trichloroacetate 2,4 - Dimethylphenol 2 - Methylpyridine propionaldehyde

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