Exposure Routes

Ways in which we can be exposed to Nasty Substances

Common to all of us is Home, Workplace, School, Travel and Leisure. These are all potential Exposure Routes to Toxic Chemicals and other Toxins that enter us via our Breathing, Skin and Gut.

Mining | CSG - Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)


  • MAIN CATEGORY: Mining
  • SUB CATEGORY: CSG - Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)
  • DESCRIPTION: Emerging trends about CSG from new data in 2015…Growing evidence shows that regulations are simply not capable of preventing harm.Drinking water is at risk from drilling and fracking activities and associated waste disposal practices.  In the US for instance, 234 private drinking water wells have been contaminated by drilling and fracking operations during the past seven years.Drilling and fracking emissions often contain strikingly high levels of benzene. A potent human carcinogen, benzene has been detected in the urine of wellpad workers (at levels known to raise risks for leukemia), in private drinking water wells contaminated by fracking operations, and in ambient air at nearby residences.Public health problems associated with drilling and fracking are becoming increasingly apparent. Documented indicators include increased rates of hospitalization, ambulance calls, emergency room visits, self-reported respiratory and skin problems, motor vehicle fatalities, trauma, drug abuse, infant mortality, congenital heart defects, and low birth weight.Natural gas is a bigger threat to the climate than previously supposed. Methane is not only a more potent greenhouse gas than formerly appreciated, real-world leakage rates are higher than predicted. Within the last five months, multiple teams of independent scientists have published data on fugitive emissions that, all together, call into question earlier presumed climate benefits from replacing coal with natural gas. Further, evidence increasingly suggests that the natural gas abundance brought by fracking is slowing the transition to renewable energy and is thus exacerbating, rather than mitigating, the climate change crisis."The Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms of Fracking is a fully-referenced compilation of the evidence for the risks and harms of fracking that brings together findings from the scientific and medical literature,government and industry reports, and journalistic investigation. It is a public, open-access document that is housed on the website of Concerned Health Professionals of New York (www.concernedhealthny.org). Since its release in July 2014, it has been used and referenced all over the world. “
  • DATA SOURCES: Each Toxin Profile contained within this Exposure Route shows a full list of data sources.
  • LAST UPDATE: 21/04/2015

Links

Explore our Articles, Forum, Twitter Posts, Facebook or Toxno lists. These are all updated regularly. Subscribe to stay informed.

ListsTwitterFacebookArticlesForum

Do you have time, expertise, knowledge or just raw passion to have less toxins in your life and the world. We would love your help. The form here (excel spreadsheeet - no macros - in .xls format) is all setup ready for you to add data and email it back to us. You can help with new Chemicals, new Exposure Routes or extra Nastiness Attributes or any combination of the above.


Download Form Here

Sub-category Exposure Routes

This Exposure Route can also have additional subcategory routes of exposure. The number of nasty chemicals in these sub category exposure routes are shown in orange. Occassional there are no sub-categories and this section will be empty.



Toxic Substances found within this Exposure Route. There are probably more.

WARNING: This list may be VERY long for some exposure routes.

1-butoxypropan-2-ol1-lauryl-2-pyrrolidonePropylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone1-Proponol1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one1,2-DIBROMO-2,4-DICYANOBUTANEPropylene glycol1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1)1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene1,4-Dioxane2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol[2-(2-methoxymethylethoxy)methylethoxy]propanol2-amino-2-methylpropanolBronopol2-butoxyethanolDimethylethanolamine2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL2-Methoxyethanol(2-methoxymethylethoxy)propanol2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONEIsopentane2-Methylhexane2-Methylpentane2-methylpentane-2,4-diol2-methylpropan-1-ol2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanolDiethylenetriamineDiethanolamine2,2',2''-(hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-triyl)triethanolTriethanolamine2,3-Dimethylbutane3-Methylhexane3-Methylpentane3,5,7-Triaza-1-azoniatricyclo[ 3.3.1.13#,7]decane, 1-(3-chloro-2-propenyl)-, chloride, (Z)-3,6,9-triazaundecamethylenediamine4-methylpentan-2-one5-CHLORO-2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-bis(diethylamino)xanthylium chlorideAcetaldehydeAcetic acidacetic anhydrideAcetoneacetophenoneAcroleinacrylamideACRYLIC ACIDAcrylonitrileadipic acidAlcohols, C11-15-secondary, ethoxylatedAlcohols, C12-14, ethoxylatedAlkanes, C12-14-iso-Aluminium or AluminumAluminium chloridealuminium silicate (version1)Aluminium sulfateAluminium octadecanoateAluminium(III) oxideAmmoniaammonia, aqueous solutionammonium chlorideAmmonium lauryl sulfateammonium hydrogensulphiteammonium mercaptoacetateAmmonium nitrateammonium sulphateAntimonyAntimony trioxideArsenicBariumBarium sulfateBentoniteBenzo[a]anthracenebenzaldehydeBenzeneBenzo[a]pyreneBenzo[b]fluorantheneBenzo[k]fluorantheneD-GlucoseDi(2-ethylhexyl)phthalateboraxBoric acid (H3BO3)Boron sodium oxide (B4Na2O7), pentahydrateButan-1-Oln-ButaneButanonebutanone oximebutyl 2,3-epoxypropyl etherCadmiumCalciumcalcium carbonatecalcium chloride 1calcium dihydroxidecalcium hypochloritecalcium oxidecalcium sulfatecarbonCarbon blackCarbon dioxideCarboxymethylcellulosecelgardCellulosechloromethaneChromiumHexavalent chromiumChryseneCinnamaldehydecis-CitralCitric AcidCobaltCopperCopper(II) sulfateCoumarincristobaliteIsopropylbenzeneCyclohexaneCyclohexanonediammonium carbonatediammonium hydrogenorthophosphatediammonium peroxodisulphateDibenzo[a,h]anthraceneDibutyl phthalateDIDECYLDIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDEDiethyl phthalateDIETHYLENE GLYCOLDIETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOMETHYL ETHERErioglaucine A disodium saltdiiron trioxideDIMETHYL GLUTARATEDi(n-octyl) phthalateDiphenylaminedipotassium peroxodisulphateDisodium 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonatedisodium dihydrogenpyrophosphatedisodium metasilicatedisodium sulphidedisodium tetraborate, anhydrousdodecyl(2-hydroxy-3-sulphonatopropyl)dimethylammoniumdodecylbenzenesulfonic acidedetic acidEDTA, TETRASODIUMEPICHLOROHYDRIN-4, 4'-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL RESINethaneethanethiolEthanolethyl acetateethyl lactateEthylbenzeneEthylene glycolETHYLENE OXIDEethylenediamineFormaldehydeFormic AcidFumaric acid 1furfuryl alcoholglass, oxide, chemicalsGlutaralGlycerolGlycine, N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:3:1)Glycolic acidGraphiteHematite (Fe2O3)N-HeptaneMetenamineHexaneHydrogen fluorideHydrochloric acidHYDROGEN PEROXIDEHydroxypropyl celluloseIndeno(1,2,3-cd)pyreneIroniron sulphateIsobutaneIsopropyl alcoholKaolinKathon 886L-Lactic acidDodecanoic acidLeadLignosulfonic acid, ammonium saltLignosulfonic acid, sodium saltLimestonem-Xylenemagnesium chlorideMagnesium nitrateMagnesium oxideMagnesium SulfateManganesemercaptoacetic acidMercurymesityleneMethanolQuaternium-15Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoatemethylcyclohexaneMETHYLENE CHLORIDEEthanolaminemorpholineMyristic acidN-(2-hydroxypropyl)oleamideNaphthaleneNickelNitrilotriacetic AcidNonoxynolnonylphenolNonylphenol, ethoxylatedoctamethylcyclotetrasiloxaneOctylphenoxy polyethoxyethanolOleic acidPhosphoric acidp-XylenePalmitic acidparaformPentanePerboric acid (HBO(O2)), sodium salt, monohydratePhenolphosphogypsumPhosphorusPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDEPoly[imino(1,6-dioxo-1,6-hexanediyl)imino-1,6-hexanediyl]polyacrylamidePolyox WSR-N 60Polypropylene glycol (m w 1,200-3,000)PolytetrafluoroethylenePolyvinyl acetatePolyvinyl AlcoholPOLYVINYL PYRROLIDONEpotassium carbonatePotassium ChloridePotassium dichromatepotassium hydroxidePotassium Iodidepotassium sulfatepropanepropenepropylbenzenePROPYLENE CARBONATEPROPYLENE OXIDEQuartz (SiO2)Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chloridesSilicic acid, sodium saltsilicon dioxideSilverSodium bicarbonateSodium bromidesodium carbonateSodium chlorideSODIUM CHLORITEsodium hydroxideSodium hypochloriteSodium lauryl sulfateSodium nitrateSodium nitriteSODIUM PERBORATESODIUM PERSULFATEsodium sulphatesodium sulphitesodium thiosulphateSorbitan oleateStearic acidStyreneSucroseSulphur or SulfurSulfuric acid, calcium salt, hydrate (1:1:2)Sulfuric acid, iron(2+) salt (1:1), monohydrateSulfuric acid, iron(2+) salt, heptahydrate (1:1:7)Sulfuric acid, zinc salt (1:1), monohydratesulphamidic acidsulphur dioxideSulfuric acidsymcloseneTalc (Mg3H2(SiO3)4)TetrachloroethylenetetrahydrofuranThioureaTintitanium dioxideTolueneTRIBUTYL PHOSPHATEtrientinetrimethylbenzenetrisodium hydrogendicarbonatetrisodium nitrilotriacetatetrisodium orthophosphatetroclosene sodiumUreaXanthan gumXYLENEZincZinc carbonateZinc chlorideZinc oxideBisphenol A 1ChloroformDieldrinP,P'-DDEAldrinAroclor 1248gamma-HexachlorocyclohexaneHeptachlorbeta-HexachlorocyclohexaneBerylliumdelta-HexachlorocyclohexanePentachlorophenolHeptachlor epoxideMethanebeta EndosulfanEndrin aldehydeHydrazineBis(2-chloroethyl) etherRadium-226Radium-228Fluoranthene1,2,3-TrichlorobenzeneSelenium1,3-Butadiene2-Methylnaphthalenep-CresolCarbon disulfideo-CresolVanadium1,2,4-TrichlorobenzeneCesium-137PhoratePhenanthreneDibromochloromethanePyrenePhosphineAcenaphthyleneBenzo[ghi]peryleneFluorene1-MethylnaphthaleneQuinolineCobalt(II) acetateCobaltous chlorideNickel sulfateAmmonium thiocyanateUraniumo-XyleneAntimony pentoxideAntimony trichlorideCopper(I) chlorideCopper(I) iodideCopper(II) chlorideTin(II) chloride (SnCl2)Chromium(III) acetateAluminium chlorohydrateAluminium isopropoxideSodium aluminateSodium aluminum phosphateMethylene thiocyanateSodium bromateCalcium bromideBromoformBromomethanem-CresolDapsone2-Methylheptane3-MethylheptaneCyclopentaneMethylcyclopentaneAmmonium laureth sulfateDazometThalliumTrimethylamineTrimethylamine N-oxideHexanalSafroleL-Glutamic acidPropionic acidTCMTBButyric acidCaprylic acidOzoneButylbenzeneCapric acidp-Cymene2-EthoxyethanolBromide ionChlorine gasAnilineEpichlorohydrin (NB: Overall evaluation upgraded to Group 2A with supporting evidence from other relevant data)BromodichloromethaneCoconut oil diethanolamine condensateDibromoacetonitrile1,3 - Dichloropropene (technical - grade)IsoprenePalygorskite (Attapulgite) (long fibres, > 5 micrometres)AmaranthAmpicillinBlue VRSChrom ium (III) compoundsCrude oilDimethylformamideEthyleneFluorides (inorganic, used in drinking - water)FurfuralN - NitrosodiphenylamineNylon 6PyridineStyrene - butadiene copolymersalpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures)Crotonaldehyde 27,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene1,6-Hexanediamine1-Undecanol2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA)2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid polymer2-Ethyl-3-propylacroleinAcetaldolAcetic acid 100 atom % DAlcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated with 6.5 EO (Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylate)Aliphatic amineAliphatic hydrocarbonAlkyl quaternary ammonium bentonite 1Alkyl quaternary ammonium bentonite 2Alkyl quaternary ammonium montmorilloniteAluminium dicalcium iron pentaoxideAluminum calcium oxide 2:1Amine treated hectoriteAmmonium bisulfateAmoco NT-45 process oil [Diesel 2]Aromatic naphtha, Type I (light) (Light aromatic solvent)Asphaltite (Gilsonite, Hydrocarbon black solid)BauxiteBenzenesulfonic acidBenzododecinium chlorideBlast furnace slagBoric oxideCement kiln dustsCeramic materialChlorine dioxideChrome acetateCoalCottonseed flourCrystalline silica, tridymiteDiatomaceous earth, calcinedDiatomiteDicalcium silicateDiesel 2Diesel fuel (low and high sulphur)Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated (mild) heavy naphthenic (9CI)Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated (mild) heavy paraffinic (9CI)DrakeolEO-C9-11-iso, C10-rich alcoholsEthyl octynolEthyl silicate, partially hydrolyzedEthylcelluloseFatty acid soapFatty acids, C18 unsaturated, dimersFormamideFormic acid sodium salt (Sodium formate)Fuel oil #2Fuel oil #5Fuller's earthGlyoxalGuar gumGuar gum, carboxymethyl 2-hydroxypropyl ether, sodium saltGuar gum, carboxymethyl ether, sodium saltHeavy aromatic petroleum naphtha (aromatic solvent)Hemicellulase enzymeHexaaluminium pentaoxide disilicateHexanesHumic acid (Leonardite)Hydrodesulfurized keroseneHydrogen sulfide 2Hydrotreated heavy petroleum naphthaHydroxyethylcelluloseIndoleKeroseneKyaniteLight naphthenic distallates, hydrotreatedLigniteLignosulfonic acid, chromium saltLubricating oils (petroleum), C15- 30, hydrotreated neutral oil-basedLubricating oils (petroleum), C20- 50, hydrotreated neutral oil-basedLubricating oils (petroleum), C20- 50, hydrotreated neutral oil-based, high-viscosityLubricating oils, (petroleum), C15-30, hydrotreated neutral oil-based, contg. solvent deasphalted residual oilMagnesium aluminum silicateMicaMineral oil, petroleum distillates, raffinates, sorption processMineral spiritsModified polysaccharideModified polysaccharide or Pregelatinized cornstarch or starchMonopentaerythritolN, N'-Methylene bis (5-methyl oxazolidine)Naphtha, petroleum medium aliphaticNaphtha, petroleum, heavy catalytic reformedNatural gas condensatesNatural gas condensates 2NitrogenN-methyldiethanolamineOxydiethylene bis(alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride)Petroleum distillate (straight run middle distillate)Petroleum distillate hydrotreated lightPetroleum distillate/ naphthaPetroleum productPhenolic resin (Phenoformaldehyde resin)Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethly)-sulfatePine oil 1Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),alpha-(4-nonylphenyl)-omega-hydroxy-,branchedPolyacrylamide/polyacrylate copolymer (Copolyer of acrylamide & sodium acrylate, partially hydrolized polyacrylalmide)PolycyclopentadienePolymer sodium acrylate:acrylic acidPotassium aluminum fluoridePotassium metaboratePropargyl alcohol (Prop-2-YN-1-OL)PyrimidineSepioliteSilane, dichlorodimethyl-, reaction products with silicaSilica, amorphousSiliconeSodium asphalt sulfonateSodium mercaptobenzothiazoleSodium metasilicateSodium montmorilloniteSodium polyacrylateSodium polynaphthalene sulfonateSulfomethylated quebrachoTall oil, diethylenetriamine imidazoline (Cellulose)Tetramethyl ammonium chlorideUlexiteVermiculiteWalnut hullsZirconium nitrateZirconium oxychlorideZirconium sulfateZirconium, tetrakis(2-(bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-kappaN)ethanolato-kappaO)-Cyanide, totalSodiumTert-butylbenzeneSodium perborate tetrahydrateParaffinic petroleum distillatePeroxyacetic AcidN,N- Dimethyl-1,3-PropanediamineBoric Acid, sodium saltHeavy Aromatic Naphtha3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chlorideHydroxylamine hydrochlorideMineral Spirits 2Petroleum distillates, dewaxed heavy paraffinicDistillates (petroleum, Catalystic Refomer trictionator, low boilingNapthaleneAlkanes, Xylene, Ethyl Benzene, Napthalene, TrimethylbenzeneProteolytic EnzymeTriisopropanolamineC9 to C21 Alkanes, Linear and BranchedHydroquinone monomethyl etherIsopropylamineMethoxyacetic acidResinPentaethylenehexaminebenzene, 1,1-oxybis-, sec-hexyl derivatives, sulfonated sodium saltsSodium ChlorateGlycol EtherDistillates, petroleum, solvent-refined heavy paraffinicErucic amidopropyl dimethyl betaineSulfuric Acid Salt1-(1-Naphthylmethyl)quinolinium chlorideSodium chloroacetate(z)-13 docosenyl-n,n-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-n-met hyl ammonium chloride2 - Hydroxyethyl acrylatealpha - AmylaseDistillates, petroleum, hydrodesulfurized light catalytic crackedDistillates, petroleum, hydrodesulfurized middleDistillates, petroleum, light catalytic crackedDistillates, petroleum, light hydrocrackedDistillates, petroleum, solvent - refined heavy naphthenicDistillates, petroleum, steam - crackedDistillates, petroleum, sweetened middleHeavy aromatic distillateMagnesium phosphidePetrolatum, petroleum, oxidizedPropanimidamide,2,2’' aAzobis[(2 - methyl -, amidinopropane) dihydrochloridePyridine, alkyl derivs.Residual oils, petroleum, solvent - refinedSODIUM PERBORATE HYDRATESodium trichloroacetate2,4 - Dimethylphenol2 - Methylpyridinepropionaldehyde

Stay Informed

Information and innovation is added hourly at Toxno - well daily at least.



Your Feedback makes Toxno better for everyone