These are the evidence-based and peer-reviewed references we use to compile the material on Toxno. Over 25,000 substance profiles. Additional reference material is used for the articles and investigations. These references and links represent a lot of hard work by mankind over generations.
Main Data Source References
- APPEA Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association | Short List of some of the Chemicals & Compounds used in CSG Hydraulic Fracking in Australia. The Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association (APPEA) is the peak national body representing Australia’s oil and gas exploration and production industry.
- APVMA Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority | Approved active constituents in pesticides and Veterinary products in Australia The following information is derived from section 14 and section 14A of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code (Agvet Code) in Australia. Agricultural and veterinary chemical products are often complex mixtures of active constituents, solvents, diluents, stabilisers and other substances. Active constituents are the components of agricultural and veterinary chemical products that are primarily responsible for the biological or therapeutic effects of the products. The APVMA is the Australian government statutory authority responsible for the assessment and registration of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and for their regulation up to and including the point of retail sale. It sits within the portfolio of the Minister for Agriculture. The APVMA is responsible for administering and managing the National Registration Scheme for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals, which sets out the regulatory framework for the management of pesticides and veterinary medicines in Australia. The APVMA administers the scheme’s legislation in partnership with state and territory governments and with the active involvement of other Australian government agencies. The role of the APVMA is to independently evaluate the safety and performance of pesticides and veterinary medicines intended for sale, ensuring that the health and safety of people, animals and crops, the environment and trade are protected. All registered products must be shown to be safe for people and the environment. Registered products must also not unduly jeopardise Australia’s trade with other nations. The APVMA monitors the market to provide assurance that only those products that meet the APVMA’s requirements are being supplied. The APVMA also reviews registered chemical products to ensure that they continue to meet contemporary high standards. The states and territories are responsible for regulating and managing the use of pesticides and veterinary medicines once they are sold.
- ARTICLE 4 Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritisation. |Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product “use categories” within a total of 15 top-level categories. M.-R. Goldsmith, C.M. Grulke, R.D. Brooks, T.R. Transue, Y.M. Tan, A. Frame, P.P. Egeghy, R. Edwards, D.T. Chang, R. Tornero-Velez, K. Isaacs, A. Wang, J. Johnson, K. Holm, M. Reich, J. Mitchell, D.A. Vallero, L. Phillips, M. Phillips, J.F. Wambaugh, R.S. Judson, T.J. Buckley, C.C. Dary. Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritisation. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 65, March 2014, Pages 269–279 10.1016/j.fct.2013.12.029
- ARTICLE 42 An Exploratory Study of Air Quality near Natural Gas Operations, Theo Colborn et al Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal , Volume 20, Issue 1, 2014, DOI:10.1080/10807039.2012.749447 | This exploratory study was designed to assess air quality in a rural western Colorado area where residences and gas wells co-exist. Sampling was conducted before, during, and after drilling and hydraulic fracturing of a new natural gas well pad. Weekly air sampling for 1 year revealed that the number of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their concentrations were highest during the initial drilling phase and did not increase during hydraulic fracturing in this closed-loop system. Methylene chloride, a toxic solvent not reported in products used in drilling or hydraulic fracturing, was detected 73% of the time; several times in high concentrations. A literature search of the health effects of the NMHCs revealed that many had multiple health effects, including 30 that affect the endocrine system, which is susceptible to chemical impacts at very low concentrations, far less than government safety standards. Selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were at concentrations greater than those at which prenatally exposed children in urban studies had lower developmental and IQ scores.
- Article-Colborn-2010 Natural Gas Operations from a Public Health Perspective, Theo Colborn, Carol Kwiatkowski, Kim Schultz & Mary Bachran, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal Volume 17, Issue 5, 2011 | This Article written in 2010 but not published till 2011 The technology to recover natural gas depends on undisclosed types and amounts of toxic chemicals. A list of 944 products containing 632 chemicals used during natural gas operations was compiled. Literature searches were conducted to determine potential health effects of the 353 chemicals identified by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers. More than 75% of the chemicals could affect the skin, eyes, and other sensory organs, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Approximately 40–50% could affect the brain/nervous system, immune and cardiovascular systems, and the kidneys; 37% could affect the endocrine system; and 25% could cause cancer and mutations. These results indicate that many chemicals used during the fracturing and drilling stages of gas operations may have long-term health effects that are not immediately expressed. In addition, an example was provided of waste evaporation pit residuals that contained numerous chemicals on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) lists of hazardous substances. The discussion highlights the difficulty of developing effective water quality monitoring programs. To protect public health we recommend full disclosure of the contents of all products, extensive air and water monitoring, coordinated environmental/human health studies, and regulation of fracturing under the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act.
- Australian Government – ComLaw & FSANZ Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs ) – Australia Only – Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 1.4.2 | List of Maximum amount of pesticide chemical residue allowed on foods in Australia (MRLs) February 2015 We use these in out LISTS on Toxno This Standard lists the maximum permissible limits for agricultural and veterinary chemical residues present in food. Schedule 1 lists all of the agricultural and veterinary chemical limits in particular foods. If a maximum residue limit for an agricultural or veterinary chemical in a food is not listed in Schedule 1 there must be no detectable residues of that agricultural or veterinary chemical in that food. Also, if an agricultural or veterinary chemical is not listed in Schedule 1, there must be no detectable residue of that chemical and no detectable residue of any metabolites of that chemical in food (whether or not that the particular food is listed in Schedules 1, 2 or 4). However, this Standard does not limit the presence of substances, including ingredients, food additives and processing aids that are otherwise permitted in the Code. Nor does it limit the presence of a substance naturally present in food, such as water or salt, or the presence in a food of substances that are formed naturally during processing of the food. Schedule 2 lists all extraneous agricultural chemical limits in particular foods. If an extraneous residue limit for an agricultural chemical in a food is not listed in Schedule 2 there must be no detectable residues of that agricultural chemical in that food. Commodity and commodity groups which are referred to in this Standard are listed in Schedule 4. Schedule 4 also specifies the part of the commodity to which the maximum or extraneous residue limit refers.
- Compendium of Pesticide Common Names Nomenclature data for more than 1700 different active pesticide ingredients. The original Alan Wood Project. | For purposes of trade, registration and legislation, and for use in popular and scientific publications, pesticides need names that are short, distinctive, non-proprietary and widely-accepted. Systematic chemical names are rarely short and are not convenient for general use, and so standards bodies assign common names to the active ingredients of pesticides. More than 1100 of these official common names for pesticides have been assigned by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). This Compendium is believed to be the only place where all of the ISO-approved standard names of chemical pesticides are listed. The Compendium contains much more than ISO common names, with nomenclature data sheets for more than 1700 different active ingredients and for more than 350 ester and salt derivatives, made accessible by a comprehensive set of indexes and a classification.
- Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) from the USA EPA Data has been consolidated since 2006 from multiple publications. | Consolidated Pesticide Information Dataset (CPI) This dataset lists approximately 1,700 pesticide names, chemical names, identification numbers, and pesticide use classes (insecticide, herbicide, fungicide, etc.) and their chirality in the familiar format of a spreadsheet. Where did the pesticide data come from? The data have been consolidated since 2006 from multiple publications, databases, and websites into a single dataset. The two main sources, Alan Wood’s Pesticide Compendium website (1) and the British Crop Production Council’s Pesticide Manual (2), were key in that they provided approximately1,700 pesticide entries for the dataset. The Chemical Abstract Services (CAS®), ChemSpider (3), and ChirBase (4) databases were important in the initial generation and quality assurance for this information. These and other Internet resources provided structural confirmation. The entries were limited to those available prior to December 2008. The Pesticide Compendium website lists newer pesticides by date. What does the pesticide dataset contain? The dataset identifies the chirality of each pesticide and descriptive information such as alternate names, CAS Registry numbers, and pesticide use class. One key feature is that the pesticide structures and structural codes also are contained in the dataset so that you can see or draw the structure. In addition, information on enantiomer separation methods is included. See full information on the fields in the dataset and their meanings. Each row contains information about a single pesticide. Duplications or entries with minor differences were combined into a single entry. Where can I find more information? The article, Ulrich, E. M.; Morrison, C. N.; Goldsmith, M. R.; Foreman, W. T., Chiral Pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implication. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2012, 217, 1-74, contains complete details on 482 chiral pesticides and the dataset. You may also contact author Elin Ulrich for more information.
- CPDB Carcinogenic Potency Database | CPDB reports analyses of animal cancer tests used in support of cancer risk assessments for human. It was developed by the Carcinogenic Potency Project at the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It includes 6,540 chronic, long-term animal cancer tests from the published literature as well as from the National Cancer Institute and the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Years of coverage: CPDB covers 1980 – 2011. It is no longer updated.
- DPR Department of Pesticide Regulation in California | A number of collections of data and other information related to pesticide registration, licensing, pesticide use, environmental effects, enforcement, and other elements of our program. They publish – Registered Pesticide Active Ingredients by Common Name. Note that at Toxno we use this data to be representative of pesticide use in the USA in general. Data for the whole of the USA is not readily available.
- EAFUS Everything Added to Food in the United States | This information is generated from a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) under an ongoing program known as the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA). PAFA contains administrative, chemical and toxicological information on over 2000 substances directly added to food, including substances regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as direct, “secondary” direct, and color additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) and prior-sanctioned substances. In addition, the database contains only administrative and chemical information on less than 1000 such substances. The more than 3000 total substances together comprise an inventory often referred to as “Everything” Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS). November 2011 The EAFUS list of substances contains ingredients added directly to food that FDA has either approved as food additives or listed or affirmed as GRAS. Nevertheless, it contains only a partial list of all food ingredients that may in fact be lawfully added to food, because under federal law some ingredients may be added to food under a GRAS determination made independently from the FDA. The list contains many, but not all, of the substances subject to independent GRAS determinations. For information about the GRAS notification program please consult the Inventory of GRAS Notifications. Additional information on the status of Food and Color Additives can be obtained from the Food Additive Status List or the Color Additive Status List (formerly called Appendix A of the Investigations Operations Manual).
- EHP Environmental Health Perspectives | A monthly peer-reviewed journal of research and news published with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The mission of EHP is to serve as a forum for the discussion of the interrelationships between the environment and human health by publishing high-quality research and news of the field. With an impact factor of 7.03, EHP is the third-ranked journal in Public, Environmental, and Occupational Health, the fourth-ranked journal in Toxicology, and the fifth-ranked journal in Environmental Sciences.
- EPA in USA Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources PROGRESS REPORT – December 2012 – US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development Washington, DC EPA in USA 2005-2011 | This data includes chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and chemicals detected in flowback and produced water. Sources of information include federal and state government documents, industryprovided data, and other reliable sources based on the availability of clear scientific methodology and verifiable original sources; the full list of information sources is available in Section A.1. The EPA at this time has not made any judgment about the extent of exposure to these chemicals when used in hydraulic fracturing fluids or found in hydraulic fracturing wastewater, or their potential impacts on drinking water resources. The tables in this appendix include information provided by nine hydraulic fracturing service companies (see Section 3.3), nine oil and gas operators (Section 3.4), and FracFocus (Section 3.5). Over 150 entries in Tables A1 and A2 were provided by the service companies, and roughly 60 entries were provided by FracFocus; these entries were not included in easily obtained public sources. The nine oil and gas operators provided data on chemicals and properties of flowback and produced water; the chemicals and properties are listed in Tables A3 and A4. Much of the information provided in response to the EPA’s September 2010 information request to the nine hydraulic fracturing service companies was claimed as confidential business information (CBI) under the Toxic Substances Control Act. In many cases, the service companies have agreed to publicly release chemical names and Chemical Abstract Services Registration Numbers (CASRNs) in Table A1. However, 82 chemicals with known chemical names and CASRNs continue to be claimed as CBI, and are not included in this appendix. In some instances, generic chemical names have been provided for these chemicals in Table A2. In order to standardize chemical names, chemical name and structure annotation quality control methods have been applied to chemicals with CASRNs.88 These methods ensure correct chemical names and CASRNs and include combining duplicates where appropriate. The EPA is creating a Distributed StructureSearchable Toxicity (DSSTox)89 chemical inventory for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or detected in flowback and produced water. The hydraulic fracturing DSSTox chemical inventory will contain CASRNs, chemical names and synonyms, and structure data files (where available). The structure data files can be used with existing computer software to calculate physicochemical properties, as described in Chapter 6.
- EPA USA – Pesticide Inerts Government Database of Pesticide Inert Chemicals | Database from USA. However these products are most likely present in Pesticide Formulations in Australia, EU and other parts of the Globe. They are mostly deemed as “Trade Secret” and as such are not required to be delclared. Pesticide products contain both “active” and “inert” ingredients. The terms “active ingredient” and “inert ingredient” are defined by the federal law that governs pesticides (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
[FIFRA]). An active ingredient is one that prevents, destroys, repels, or mitigates a pest, or is a plant regulator, defoliant, desiccant or nitrogen stabilizer. By law, the active ingredient must be identified by name on the pesticide product’s label together with its percentage by weight. All other ingredients in a pesticide product are called “inert ingredients.” An inert ingredient means any substance (or group of similar substances) other than an active ingredient that is intentionally included in a pesticide product. Called “inerts” by the law, the name does not mean non-toxic. Pesticide products often contain more than one inert ingredient. Inert ingredients play key roles in the effectiveness of pesticides. Examples include inerts that prevent caking or foaming, extend product shelf-life, or solvents that allow herbicides to penetrate plants. Note that some inerts are fragrances. In USA some inerts are not allowed on food whiles others are. See our LISTS for more info. Data is current as of 2015
- ALS ALS Enviromental | ALS Environmental provides a wide variety of analytical services to industrial, consulting, and government clientele, including those in aerospace, automotive, environmental and construction engineering; federal government agencies (DOD, EPA, NOAA); state and local agencies; microelectronics and semiconductor industries; and mining, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, nutraceutical, transportation, utilities, and waste management industries.
- ARTICLE 18 A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritisation | “Manufactured chemicals are widely used in products such as cosmetics, plastics, and electronics, and have applications in almost all industrial processes in sectors including energy, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. Increasing dependence on manufactured chemicals has not, however, been matched by an adequate increase in our understanding of the risks these may pose to the environment and human health.” Mitchell J, Pabon N, Collier ZA, Egeghy PP, Cohen-Hubal E, et al. (2013) A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization. PLoS ONE 8(8): e70911. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070911 10.1371/journal.pone.0070911
- ARTICLE 24 Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles | Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle (AP), which is the only one tested in the longest toxicological regulatory tests performed on mammals. Toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations were tested including Roundup. Robin Mesnage, Nicolas Defarge, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, and Gilles-Eric Séralini, Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles, BioMed Research International, Volume 2014, Article ID 179691, 8 pages 10.1155/2014/179691
- BEYOND PESTICIDES Seeks to protect healthy air, water, land and food for ourselves and future generations. | Beyond Pesticides (formerly National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides) is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., which works with allies in protecting public health and the environment to lead the transition to a world free of toxic pesticides.
- BOOK 9 A Small Dose of Toxicology, 2nd Edition, updated by Maria Mergel (Dec 04, 2013) | An introductory toxicology textbook that examines the health effects of common chemical agents and places toxicology within the framework of our daily lives. Agents covered include not only obvious candidates such as lead, mercury, and solvents, but familiar compounds such as caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. Additional chapters cover basic toxicology, targets of toxic agents, and applied toxicology.(Dec 04, 2014) – A FREE eBook
- EHT Environment Health and Toxicology Databases | The National Library of Medicine’s Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal provides a starting point for finding reliable information on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases.
- HSDB Hazardous Substances Data Bank | HSDB is a toxicology database that focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It provides information on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, nanomaterials, and related areas. The information in HSDB has been assessed by a Scientific Review Panel.
- NCAP Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP) | Helpful Pestcide factsheets that describe some of the active ingredients in pesticides and how they affect the health of people and our world. The Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP) – in the USA – works to protect community and environmental health and inspire the use of ecologically sound solutions to reduce the use of pesticides. There are 46 Fact Sheets in total to freely download.
- PESTICIDES.ORG Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides | Factsheets that describe some of the active ingredients in pesticides and how they affect the health of people and our world.
- PPDB University of Hertfordshire (2013). The Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) developed by the Agriculture & Environment Research Unit (AERU), University of Hertfordshire, 2006-2013. | The Pesticide Properties Database (PPDB) is a comprehensive relational database of pesticide physicochemical, toxicological, ecotoxicological and other related data. The database holds data for around 1150 pesticides, 700 metabolites and 100 other related substances. Biopesticides and veterinary substances are held in separate databases. Data can be broadly divided into the following areas: 1. General data including a range of identity codes, structural descriptors, chemical names, synonyms, language translations, classification systems and country registration information. 2. Chemical and physical properties which can influence the environmental fate and transport of pesticides. Also included are a number of pre-calculated fate indices. 3. Ecotoxicological data for a range of taxa both acute and chronic. 4. Human health information including risk and safety information, toxicity endpoints, exposure limits, health issues, ADI, ARfD, AOEL and drinking water MACs. 5. Layperson interpretations based on regulatory thresholds and commonly used rules-of- thumb. database format as data is calculated automatically by the code generating the webpages. 6. Information on commercial products including brand names, companies using or selling the active substance, associated substances (other actives, parent compounds, adjuvants and inert materials used within the products) and information on formulations and application.
- RIRDC Honeybee pesticide poisoning – A risk management tool for Australian farmers and beekeepers – Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) Australia | An increase in the number of managed beehives available for crop pollination is crucial to the continued prosperity of the Australian horticultural industry. Further development of the managed pollination sector will provide important opportunities for the honeybee industry. Historically, a significant barrier in this regard, has been the risk that beekeepers face in relation to honeybee pesticide poisoning. This publication will help farmers and beekeepers overcome this barrier and manage the risks, by providing a list of the broadacre and horticultural pesticides that are known to be toxic to honeybees in Australia, as well as outlining good practices and providing useful templates. Products have been included on the basis that they either contain a bee related warning on the product label, or they have the same active constituent(s), active constituent(s) concentration, application rate and intended use as products which contain a bee related warning on the label.
- The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard Guidelines to Pesticide Classification 2009 | Overarching principles for the classification of pesticides as recommended by the World Health Assembly. Guidelines to Classification. Individual products are classified in a series of tables, according to the oral or dermal toxicity of the technical product. The tables are subject to review periodically.
- TOXNET Databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases | Resource for searching databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases. Includes many databases.
- TOXreviews Toxicological Reviews | A-Z List of Toxicological Reviews & Support Documents