[FIFRA]). An active ingredient is one that prevents, destroys, repels, or mitigates a pest, or is a plant regulator, defoliant, desiccant or nitrogen stabilizer. By law, the active ingredient must be identified by name on the pesticide product’s label together with its percentage by weight. All other ingredients in a pesticide product are called “inert ingredients.” An inert ingredient means any substance (or group of similar substances) other than an active ingredient that is intentionally included in a pesticide product. Called “inerts” by the law, the name does not mean non-toxic. Pesticide products often contain more than one inert ingredient. Inert ingredients play key roles in the effectiveness of pesticides. Examples include inerts that prevent caking or foaming, extend product shelf-life, or solvents that allow herbicides to penetrate plants. Note that some inerts are fragrances. In USA some inerts are not allowed on food whiles others are. See our LISTS for more info. Data is current as of 2015
EPA_IRIS Integrated Risk Information System | EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a human health assessment program that evaluates information on health effects that may result from exposure to environmental contaminants. Through the IRIS Program, EPA provides the highest quality science-based human health assessments to support the Agency’s regulatory activities. The IRIS database is web accessible and contains information on more than 550 chemical substances.
EU Pesticides database European Commission Pesticide dataset | Approval and monitoring of active pesticide substances by the EU in Europe “A plant protection product (Pesticide) usually contains more than one component. The active component against pests/plant diseases is called “active substance”. The Commission evaluates every active substance for safety before it reaches the market in a product. Substances must be proven safe for people’s health, including their residues in food and effects on animal health and the environment.” The EU Pesticides Database also Publishes data for pesticide residues tested and detected on foods in Europe. These are called MRLs or Maximimum Residue Levels (allowed on food) A ‘pesticide’ is something that prevents, destroys, or controls a harmful organism (‘pest’) or disease, or protects plants or plant products during production, storage and transport. The term includes, amongst others: herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, acaricides, nematicides, molluscicides, rodenticides, growth regulators, repellents, rodenticides and biocides. They contain at least one active substance and have one of the following functions: • protect plants or plant products against pests/diseases, before or after harvest • influence the life processes of plants (such as substances influencing their growth, excluding nutrients) • preserve plant products • destroy or prevent growth of undesired plants or parts of plants They may also contain other components including safeners and synergists. EU countries authorise plant protection products on their territory and ensure compliance with EU rules.
FDA Indirect Food Additives Additives Used in Food Contact Substances | The List of Indirect Additives Used in Food Contact Substances November 2011 The information in the indirect additive database is generated from an application maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) under an ongoing program known as the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA). PAFA contains administrative and chemical information on over 3000 substances mentioned in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR) Parts 175, 176, 177, and 178. These parts of 21CFR deal with what are known as “indirect” food additives. These are substances used in food-contact articles, and include adhesives and components of coatings (Part 175), paper and paperboard components (Part 176), polymers (Part 177), and adjuvants and production aids (Part 178). In general, these are substances that may come into contact with food as part of packaging or processing equipment, but are not intended to be added directly to food. Additional “indirect” additives that are effective as part of the food contact substance notification program or that are exempted from regulation as food additives in accordance with 21 CFR 170.39 “Threshold of Regulation (TOR) exemptions for substances used in food-contact articles.” are listed in separate inventories. Please note that by being listed below, no inference should be made about the legality of using any one of these specific substances as an “indirect” food additive. Their presence on this list only indicates that the names of these substances are found (or, in the case of some of the polymers, are implied) in 21CFR parts 175 – 178. The regulation(s) cited for a substance should always be consulted for the complete context before any conclusion is made as to allowed regulated use. To access the specific regulations listed below, type in the title number, 21, and then the section and part numbers, e.g. 175 and 105 at the Government Printing Office web site.
Flavornet HUMAN ODOR SPACE chemicals | There are 738 odorants listed as of 2004. Flavornet is a compilation of aroma compounds found in human odor space. A seemingly infinite number of perceptions are invoked by less than 1000 odorants that make up this space. FLAVORNET AND HUMAN ODOR SPACE by Terry Acree & Heinrich Arn,
FracFocus and Skytruth FracFocus is the national hydraulic fracturing chemical registry. | Dataset containing information extracted from PDF files hosted on FracFocus.org Voluntary disclosure reports submitted by oil and gas drilling operators about the chemicals they used in hydraulic fracturing operations across the United Sates. The site was created to provide the public access to reported chemicals used for hydraulic fracturing within their area. To help users put this information into perspective, the site also provides objective information on hydraulic fracturing, the chemicals used, the purposes they serve and the means by which groundwater is protected. The primary purpose of this site is to provide factual information concerning hydraulic fracturing and groundwater protection. It is not intended to argue either for or against the use of hydraulic fracturing as a technology. It is also not intended to provide a scientific analysis of risk associated with hydraulic fracturing. A short List of chemicals from Fracfocus.com is here- https://fracfocus.org/chemical-use/what-chemicals-are-used while a much more extensive list published by Skytruth is here http://frack.skytruth.org/fracking-chemical-database/frack-chemical-data-download
FSANZ and FSA Food Additives with E Numbers | Food Additives with E Numbers used in Australia, NZ, UK and the EU. Over 400 in total. Last update 2012 – FSANZ (Food Standards Australia New Zealand), UK and EU updated 2014
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer | International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organisation (WHO); FREE PDF’s Evidenced based Monographs of carcinogenic substances and chemicals.
JECFA Evaluations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives | These are from evaluations of FLAVOURS used in foods the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has performed. Each chemical included here is deemed as “acceptable” by the JECFA. It is up to individual countries how they regulate and monitor these substances. Includes all updates up to the 78th JECFA (November 2013).
NTP National Toxicology Program | More than 80,000 chemicals are registered for use in the United States. Each year, an estimated 2,000 new ones are introduced for use in such everyday items as foods, personal care products, prescription drugs, household cleaners, and lawn care products. We do not know the effects of many of these chemicals on our health, yet we may be exposed to them while manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of them or when they become pollutants in our air, water, or soil. Safeguarding public health depends on identifying both what the effects of these chemicals are and at what levels of exposure they may become hazardous to humans—that is, understanding their toxicology.
OEHHA Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment – Proposition 65 | Proposition 65 (Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986) requires the Governor of California in the USA to publish, at least annually, a list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer, birth defects or reproductive toxicity.
PAN – HHPs International List of Highly Hazardous Pesticides (PAN List of HHPs) June 2014 | For decades the distribution and use of hazardous pesticides has been an issue of concern. Since its founding in 1982, Pesticide Action Network (PAN) has been the civil society organization most steadily and continuously calling for effective international action on the elimination of hazardous pesticides. PAN has been one of the key driving forces among non- governmental organisations (NGOs) for improving pesticide and crop protection policies towards safer, socially just, environmentally sustainable and economically viable pest management systems.
PUBCHEM Information on the biological activities of small molecules. | PubChem is organized as three linked databases within the NCBI’s Entrez information retrieval system. These are PubChem Substance, PubChem Compound, and PubChem BioAssay. PubChem also provides a fast chemical structure similarity search tool.
T3DB Toxin and Toxin Target Database – the toxic exposome database | The Toxin and Toxin Target Database (T3DB) is a unique bioinformatics resource that combines detailed toxin data with comprehensive toxin target information. The database currently houses 3,673 toxins described by 41,733 synonyms, including pollutants, pesticides, drugs, and food toxins, which are linked to 2,086 corresponding toxin target records. Wishart D, Arndt D, Pon A, Sajed T, Guo AC, Djoumbou Y, Knox C, Wilson M, Liang Y, Grant J, Liu Y, Goldansaz SA, Rappaport SM. T3DB: the toxic exposome database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Nov 5. pii: gku1004. [Epub ahead of print] | Lim E, Pon A, Djoumbou Y, Knox C, Shrivastava S, Guo AC, Neveu V, Wishart DS. T3DB: a comprehensively annotated database of common toxins and their targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan 38(Database issue):D781-6. 10.1093/nar/gku1004
TEDX Chemicals in Natural Gas Operations | The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange (TEDX) Data sources – Acquiring information about the products and chemicals used in natural gas operations continues to be extremely difficult. TEDX has spent several years collecting data from a variety of sources including state Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Tier II reports, Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Assessment Statement disclosures, rule-making documents, accident and spill reports, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, state agencies, non-profit organizations, and the natural gas industry. Health Effects Only chemicals with CAS numbers could be accurately investigated for their health effects. Information about the potential health effects of each chemical with a CAS number was obtained from these sources: Material Safety Data Sheets Publicly available government databases: TOXNET Hazardous Substances Database Published scientific studies (located through PubMed and Web of Science) Pit Chemicals USed in CSG activities Several different types of pits are used in natural gas operations. Drilling pits are earthen-bermed reservoirs on the well pad used for storage of discarded fluids from drilling, fracturing or other processes. These might be lined with heavy plastic sheeting, or unlined. Large evaporation pit complexes are used to dispose of water stripped from the natural gas as it surfaces, and the fluids from the drilling pits. These pits can be either commercial, servicing many drilling companies, or private, operated by one company. Natural gas processing plants also use pits to dispose of the water used to “wash” the gas before it leaves the refinery. In 2007, an industry committee comprised of 19 oil and gas companies operating in New Mexico sponsored a sampling and analysis program (SAP) of pit solids. The SAP was completed by a third party consultant and analytical laboratory. The SAP focused on six drilling reserve pits in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and the Permian Basin of southeast New Mexico prior to closure. This data was collected. See our LISTS for more information on the chemicals found.
US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES CHEMICALS USED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING – COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE MINORITY STAFF | APRIL 2011 Report | Hydraulic fracturing has helped to expand natural gas production in the United States, unlocking large natural gas supplies in shale and other unconventional formations across the country. As a result of hydraulic fracturing and advances in horizontal drilling technology, natural gas production in 2010 reached the highest level in decades. According to new estimates by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the United States possesses natural gas resources sufficient to supply the United States for approximately 110 years. As the use of hydraulic fracturing has grown, so have concerns about its environmental and public health impacts. One concern is that hydraulic fracturing fluids used to fracture rock formations contain numerous chemicals that could harm human health and the environment, especially if they enter drinking water supplies. The opposition of many oil and gas companies to public disclosure of the chemicals they use has compounded this concern. Australia will have similar concerns. Read more here … http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Hydraulic-Fracturing-Chemicals-2011-4-18.pdf
- ALS ALS Enviromental | ALS Environmental provides a wide variety of analytical services to industrial, consulting, and government clientele, including those in aerospace, automotive, environmental and construction engineering; federal government agencies (DOD, EPA, NOAA); state and local agencies; microelectronics and semiconductor industries; and mining, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, nutraceutical, transportation, utilities, and waste management industries.
- ARTICLE 18 A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritisation | “Manufactured chemicals are widely used in products such as cosmetics, plastics, and electronics, and have applications in almost all industrial processes in sectors including energy, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. Increasing dependence on manufactured chemicals has not, however, been matched by an adequate increase in our understanding of the risks these may pose to the environment and human health.” Mitchell J, Pabon N, Collier ZA, Egeghy PP, Cohen-Hubal E, et al. (2013) A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization. PLoS ONE 8(8): e70911. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070911 10.1371/journal.pone.0070911
- ARTICLE 24 Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles | Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle (AP), which is the only one tested in the longest toxicological regulatory tests performed on mammals. Toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations were tested including Roundup. Robin Mesnage, Nicolas Defarge, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, and Gilles-Eric Séralini, Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles, BioMed Research International, Volume 2014, Article ID 179691, 8 pages 10.1155/2014/179691
- BEYOND PESTICIDES Seeks to protect healthy air, water, land and food for ourselves and future generations. | Beyond Pesticides (formerly National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides) is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., which works with allies in protecting public health and the environment to lead the transition to a world free of toxic pesticides.
- BOOK 9 A Small Dose of Toxicology, 2nd Edition, updated by Maria Mergel (Dec 04, 2013) | An introductory toxicology textbook that examines the health effects of common chemical agents and places toxicology within the framework of our daily lives. Agents covered include not only obvious candidates such as lead, mercury, and solvents, but familiar compounds such as caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. Additional chapters cover basic toxicology, targets of toxic agents, and applied toxicology.(Dec 04, 2014) – A FREE eBook
- EHT Environment Health and Toxicology Databases | The National Library of Medicine’s Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal provides a starting point for finding reliable information on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases.
- HSDB Hazardous Substances Data Bank | HSDB is a toxicology database that focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It provides information on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, nanomaterials, and related areas. The information in HSDB has been assessed by a Scientific Review Panel.
- NCAP Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP) | Helpful Pestcide factsheets that describe some of the active ingredients in pesticides and how they affect the health of people and our world. The Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP) – in the USA – works to protect community and environmental health and inspire the use of ecologically sound solutions to reduce the use of pesticides. There are 46 Fact Sheets in total to freely download.
- PESTICIDES.ORG Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides | Factsheets that describe some of the active ingredients in pesticides and how they affect the health of people and our world.
- PPDB University of Hertfordshire (2013). The Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) developed by the Agriculture & Environment Research Unit (AERU), University of Hertfordshire, 2006-2013. | The Pesticide Properties Database (PPDB) is a comprehensive relational database of pesticide physicochemical, toxicological, ecotoxicological and other related data. The database holds data for around 1150 pesticides, 700 metabolites and 100 other related substances. Biopesticides and veterinary substances are held in separate databases. Data can be broadly divided into the following areas: 1. General data including a range of identity codes, structural descriptors, chemical names, synonyms, language translations, classification systems and country registration information. 2. Chemical and physical properties which can influence the environmental fate and transport of pesticides. Also included are a number of pre-calculated fate indices. 3. Ecotoxicological data for a range of taxa both acute and chronic. 4. Human health information including risk and safety information, toxicity endpoints, exposure limits, health issues, ADI, ARfD, AOEL and drinking water MACs. 5. Layperson interpretations based on regulatory thresholds and commonly used rules-of- thumb. database format as data is calculated automatically by the code generating the webpages. 6. Information on commercial products including brand names, companies using or selling the active substance, associated substances (other actives, parent compounds, adjuvants and inert materials used within the products) and information on formulations and application.
- RIRDC Honeybee pesticide poisoning – A risk management tool for Australian farmers and beekeepers – Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) Australia | An increase in the number of managed beehives available for crop pollination is crucial to the continued prosperity of the Australian horticultural industry. Further development of the managed pollination sector will provide important opportunities for the honeybee industry. Historically, a significant barrier in this regard, has been the risk that beekeepers face in relation to honeybee pesticide poisoning. This publication will help farmers and beekeepers overcome this barrier and manage the risks, by providing a list of the broadacre and horticultural pesticides that are known to be toxic to honeybees in Australia, as well as outlining good practices and providing useful templates. Products have been included on the basis that they either contain a bee related warning on the product label, or they have the same active constituent(s), active constituent(s) concentration, application rate and intended use as products which contain a bee related warning on the label.
- The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard Guidelines to Pesticide Classification 2009 | Overarching principles for the classification of pesticides as recommended by the World Health Assembly. Guidelines to Classification. Individual products are classified in a series of tables, according to the oral or dermal toxicity of the technical product. The tables are subject to review periodically.
- TOXNET Databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases | Resource for searching databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases. Includes many databases.
- TOXreviews Toxicological Reviews | A-Z List of Toxicological Reviews & Support Documents